Presentation on theme: " Cardiovascular System = Heart, blood vessels, and blood -Transports H 2 O, nutrients, waste, O 2, CO 2, hormones, and immune cells. -Regulates heat,"— Presentation transcript:
Cardiovascular System = Heart, blood vessels, and blood -Transports H 2 O, nutrients, waste, O 2, CO 2, hormones, and immune cells. -Regulates heat, pH, and pressure. -Associated with lymphatic system. Lymphatic System = Lymphatic vessels, lymphatic hearts, & lymph Circulatory System
Anastamosis = intercommunication between separate vessels (net like). Portal System = vessels that carry blood from capillaries to capillaries. Sinus = region for “pooling” of fluids. Aortic arch = arterial arches that extend from ventral to dorsal between pharyngeal openings. Gnathostomes have 6 early in devel. Vascular Terms
Arteries = Large; carry blood away from heart Arterioles = Smaller; carry blood away from heart Capillaries = Very small; gas & nutrient exchange occur here Veinules = Smaller; carry blood to heart Veins = Large; carry blood to heart Vascular
Blood = connective tissue; cells (in vertebrates) in a water-based matrix. Plasma = matrix around blood cells. Transports: H 2 O, nutrients, waste, CO 2, hormones Erythrocytes = Contain hemoglobin; transport O 2 ; No nuclei in mammals. Leucocytes = Immune cells. Platelets = Cell fragments, involved in clotting after damage. Vertebrate Blood
Hematopoesis – Blood Devel. Hematopoesis = blood development. Blood islands form in splanchnic mesoderm in yolk sac = 1st site of hematopoesis (always nucleate cells). Early fetal human red blood cells have nuclei. Additional stem cells in splanchnic mesoderm around heart migrate to hematopoetic areas (spleen, kidneys, liver, & bone marrow in non-avian amniotes).
Mostly from splanchnic mesoderm. Angiogenesis = blood vessel formation Blood islands in yolk sac merge to form vessels that then extend into rest of embryo. Cardiovascular system starts in yolk sac and spreads to rest of embryo. Vascular Development
Basic Chordate Arterial Circ. Blood moves from posterior and ventral to the pharynx (heart/sinus venosus) Anteriorly under the pharynx (ventral aorta) Dorsolaterally up through the pharynx (pharyngeal/aortic arches) Then to the body anteriorly and posteriorly from the dorsal pharynx (dorsal aorta).
Early Human Embryo Arterial heart sinus venosus atrium ventricle bulbis cordis umbilical artery ventral aorta (truncus arteriosus) left & right dorsal aortas aortic arch II aortic arch I III IV vitelline artery
Early Human Embryo Arterial heart umbilical artery ventral aorta (truncus arteriosus) left & right dorsal aortas III IV VI vitelline artery
Early Human Embryo Arterial heart umbilical artery ventral aorta (truncus arteriosus) III IV VI carotids pulmonary descending aorta vitelline artery
Early Human Embryo Circulation heart sinus venosus atrium ventricle bulbis cordis ventral aorta (truncus arteriosus) allantoic (umbilical) veins vitelline (hepatic) veins left & right anterior cardinal veins left & right posterior cardinal veins left & right common cardinal veins
Early Human Embryo Circulation heart allantoic (umbilical) veins vitelline (hepatic) veins left & right anterior cardinal veins left & right posterior cardinal veins azygous vein jugular veins superior vena cava inferior vena cava hepatic portal vein hepatic vein
Hematopoesis In non-amniotes occurs primarily in the spleen, kidneys, and liver. Especially the spleen. Hagfishes, lampreys, & lungfishes = no spleen In amniotes occurs in bone marrow (especially in humans and other mammals) as well as in other tissues. No bone marrow in birds.
Gnathostomes = Arch I lost in adults; 6 arches early in development Sarcopterygiians = Pulmonary arteries from arch VI Tetrapods & Actinopts. = Arch II lost Amniotes = Arch V lost Mammals = left Arch IV forms aorta; right Arch IV forms base of subclavian Birds = right Arch IV forms aorta Aortic Arches
Gnathostome Embryo Aortic Arches heart I II III IV V VI internal carotid external carotid dorsal aorta ventral aorta dorsal aorta I II III IV V VI
heart Chondrichthyan Aortic Arches I II III IV V VI I II III IV V VI
heart Teleost Aortic Arches I II III IV V VI I II III IV V VI
Lungfish Aortic Arches pulmonary artery heart I II III IV V VI I II III IV V VI
Amphibian Aortic Arches heart I II III IV V VI internal carotid external carotid pulmonary artery I II III IV V VI
Lizard Aortic Arches heart I II III IV V VI internal carotid external carotid pulmonary artery I II III IV V VI
Bird Aortic Arches heart I II III IV V VI internal carotid external carotid pulmonary artery I II III IV V VI
Lepidosaur Aortic Arches heart I II III IV V VI internal carotid external carotid pulmonary artery I II III IV V VI
Mammalian Aortic Arches heart I II III IV V VI internal carotid external carotid pulmonary artery I II III IV V VI
Subphylum Vertebrata Myxini (hagfishes) lampreys Chondrichthys Actinopterygii coelacanths lungfishes amphibians Mammalia Reptilia arch V lost arch VI forms pulmonary connection arch I lost; 6 arches form in development arch II lost arch II lost
Amniota montremes marsupials eutherians turtles lizards & snakes crocodilians birds right arch IV forms aorta left arch IV forms aorta; right arch IV forms right subclavian
Gnathostome Adult Aortic Arches Aortic Archamphibiansturtleslizards Ilost IIlost IIIcommon carotids IVl. and r. aortic arches Vaortic arch (lost in frogs) lost VIaortic arch & pulmonary artery pulmonary artery
Gnathostome Adult Aortic Arches Aortic ArchcrocodiliansbirdsMammalia Ilost IIlost IIIcommon carotids com. carotids / subclavian bases common carotids & ext. carotid base IVl. and r. aortic arches l. lost r. aorta l. aorta r. subclavian Vlost VIpulmonary artery
Gnathostomes = renal portal vein Tetrapods = inferior vena cava from right hepatic; anterior cardinal veins form internal & external jugular veins Mammals = inferior vena cava connects to & replaces renal portal Some Mammals (humans, cats, etc.) = lose the left anterior cardinal vein (the right anterior cardinal vein = superior vena cava) Venous System
Gnathostome Venous System VeinsChondrichthysActinopterygiilungfishes ant. card.ant. cardinal com. card.com. cardinal post. card.post. cardinal post. cardinal (rt. = posterior “vena cava”) hepatic2 hepatic veins hep. portalhepatic portal renal port.renal portal
Gnathostome Venous System VeinsamphibiansturtlesLepidosauria ant. card.ant. cardinal (jugular vein & brachiocephalics ) ant. cardinal (jugular vein & brachiocephalics ) ant. cardinal (jugular vein & brachiocephalics ) com. card.com. cardinal ( s. vena cavas ) com. cardinal ( s. vena cavas ) com. cardinal ( s. vena cavas ) post. card.post. cardinall. lost r. azygous vein l. lost r. azygous vein hepaticl. hepatic vein r. p. vena cava l. hepatic vein r. p. vena cava l. hepatic vein r. p. vena cava hep. portalhepatic portal renal port.renal portal
Gnathostome Venous System VeinscrocodiliansbirdsMammalia ant. card.ant. cardinal (jugular vein & brachiocephalics ) ant. cardinal (jugular vein & brachiocephalics ) ant. cardinal (jugular vein & brachiocephalics ) com. card.com. cardinal ( s. vena cavas ) com. cardinal ( s. vena cavas ) com. cardinal ( s. vena cavas -left s. v. c. lost in some) post. card.l. lost r. azygous vein l. lost r. azygous vein l. lost r. azygous vein hepaticl. hepatic vein r. i. vena cava l. hepatic vein r. i. vena cava l. hepatic vein r. i. vena cava hep. portalhepatic portal renal port.renal portal lost
gut Vein from yolk sac to heart (vitelline vein) impinged on by hepatic diverticulum and forms hepatic capillaries. Hepatic Portal Vein heart vitelline vein (from yolk sac) liver (with hepatic veins) hepatic portal vein
Heart = Muscular pump, moves blood via rhythmic contraction. Contraction involuntary & initiated within the heart. (not-neuronal) Modified branching (cardiac) muscle cells transmit contraction signal. Chamber = Cavity for blood collection separated by valves Valves = Flaps of tissue that prevent back-flow of fluid (in this case blood) Heart
Human Heart Development Formed from splanchnic mesoderm. Endocardial tissue = forms simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart chambers and forms the heart valves Myocardial = epithelium forms heart muscle Hollow endocardial primordia form by splanchnic mesoderm ingression, then fuse to form a the endocardium (endothelium). Epithelial splanchnic mesoderm surrounds the endocardium forming the cardiac muscle of the myocardium.
Sinus Venosus lost except some cells that become the sinoatrial node (“pacemaker”) Sinoatrial valve lost. Atrium divides into right and left. Atrioventricular valve divides to form (right) tricuspid and (left) bicuspid/mitral valves Ventricle divides into right and left. Human Heart Development
Bulbis cordis lost. Ventral aorta (truncus arteriosus) divides to become - (left) ascending aorta that will maintain connection to aortic arches III & IV and - (right) pulmonary trunk artery that will maintain connection to aortic arch VI. Human Heart Development
Sarcopterygiians = at least partially developed interatrial septum Tetrapods = complete interatrial septum Amniotes = conus arteriosus lost during devel; sinus venosus incorp. into right atrium; at least partially developed interventricular septum Mammals & Archosaurs = complete interventricular septum Heart Chambers
Gnathostome Heart Chambersamphibianslizardsturtles Sinus Venosus sinus venosussinoatrial node (incorp. in rt. atrium) Atriumleft atrium right atrium left atrium right atrium left atrium right atrium Ventricleventricleventricle (partial. left-right divided) Conus Arteriosus conus arteriosus lost
Gnathostome Heart ChamberscrocodiliansbirdsMammalia Sinus Venosus sinoatrial node (incorp. in rt. atrium) Atriumleft atrium right atrium left atrium right atrium left atrium right atrium Ventricleleft ventricle right ventricle (connected by foramen of Panizza) left ventricle right ventricle left ventricle right ventricle Conus Arteriosus lost
Plasma in capillaries is forced into the tissues by blood pressure. Edema = swelling of tissues due to accumulation of fluid (plasma/lymph). Usually, edema is avoided because… plasma in tissues diffuses into blind lymphatic capillaries and is called lymph. Lymphatic System
HIGH PRESSURE heart artery vein capillaries LOW PRESSURE
Lymphangitis = inflamation of a lymph vessel. (ROOT WORDS) Lymphangitis of the vessel indicated by the arrow caused the edema in the middle finger. Lymphatic System
Lymph vessels = thin walled vessels with valves (similar in structure to veins, but with weak contractile ability); return lymph to venous system. Lymph nodes (lymphatic cisterns) = expanded lymph vessels filled with connective tissue and leukocytes. Immunological filters. Lacteals = lymph vessels in villi of the jejuno-ileum (small intestine) absorb fats. Lymphatic System
Contractile lymph vessels exist in most vertebrates (Form localized Lymph Hearts in hagfishes, lungfishes, amphibians, turtles, liz. & snakes, & ostriches+related birds) Lacteals = lymph vessels in the intestinal villi – Only in TETRAPODS. Lymph nodes / sacs / cisterns = expanded lymph vessels filled with connective tissue and leukocytes. Only in AMNIOTES. Lymphatic System
Ventilation = movement of air or water across a respiratory surface. Apnea = cessation of ventilation Unidirectional ventilation = air/water moves 1 direction over resp. surface Bidirectional ventilation = air/water moves 2 directions over resp. surface. (tidal) Concurrent & Counter current exchange General Respiratory Systems
Concurrent Same Direction Current to body blood water or air from body (heart)
Counter Current Counter Current System to body blood water or air from body (heart)
Gills Gill = bony pharyngeal arch and two sets of filaments. Absent in Amniotes and adult Lissamphibians Each filament bears many lamellae (small, flat projections) & blood passes through capillaries in the lamellae. Blood movement through lamellae sets up a counter current system.
Lungs/Swimbladders Lung(s) = aerial gut diverticulum respiratory surface. (Osteichthys) In fishes called swimbladder & usually used for buoyancy as well. Pneumatic duct = Connection to digestive tract in Actinopterygii & Dipnoi. Trachea (in Tetrapods) is a pneumatic duct held open with cartilage rings.
Ancestral lungs/swimbladders: Ventral trachea/pneumatic duct. Two “lungs” Swimbladder of non-reedfish actinopterygiians: Dorsal pneumatic duct. One lung dorsal to esophagus. (Pneumatic duct lost in some teleosts.) Lungs/Swimbladders (Osteichthys)
sturgeons & paddlefish gars bowfin Amia calva TELEOSTS reedfishes Class Actinopterygii single dorsal lung with dorsal connection to digestive tract
Aerial Respiratory Modifications Ancestrally - amphibians & “fishes” - “Swallow” air – push into lungs - Elastic lungs recoil to push air out. Prehepatic diaphragm (mammals) - Negative pressure pulls air into lungs - Body cavity contraction pushes air out. Posthepatic diaphragm (crocodilians) - Negative pressure pulls air into lungs - Liver pushes air out of lungs.
Ventilation “swallow” air posthepatic prehepatic
Parabronchi (birds) = one-way, passageways through the lung faveoli. Lungs not very compressible. Air Sacs (birds) = membranous sacs for containing air (9 off of each lung) Air moved by expansion & contraction of air sacs. Countercurrent, constant flow of O 2 rich air over capillaries even when exhaling. Bird Respiration