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 Cardiovascular System = Heart, blood vessels, and blood -Transports H 2 O, nutrients, waste, O 2, CO 2, hormones, and immune cells. -Regulates heat,

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Presentation on theme: " Cardiovascular System = Heart, blood vessels, and blood -Transports H 2 O, nutrients, waste, O 2, CO 2, hormones, and immune cells. -Regulates heat,"— Presentation transcript:

1  Cardiovascular System = Heart, blood vessels, and blood -Transports H 2 O, nutrients, waste, O 2, CO 2, hormones, and immune cells. -Regulates heat, pH, and pressure. -Associated with lymphatic system.  Lymphatic System = Lymphatic vessels, lymphatic hearts, & lymph Circulatory System

2 Human Cardiovascular

3

4  Anastamosis = intercommunication between separate vessels (net like).  Portal System = vessels that carry blood from capillaries to capillaries.  Sinus = region for “pooling” of fluids.  Aortic arch = arterial arches that extend from ventral to dorsal between pharyngeal openings. Gnathostomes have 6 early in devel. Vascular Terms

5  Arteries = Large; carry blood away from heart  Arterioles = Smaller; carry blood away from heart  Capillaries = Very small; gas & nutrient exchange occur here  Veinules = Smaller; carry blood to heart  Veins = Large; carry blood to heart Vascular

6  Blood = connective tissue; cells (in vertebrates) in a water-based matrix.  Plasma = matrix around blood cells. Transports: H 2 O, nutrients, waste, CO 2, hormones  Erythrocytes = Contain hemoglobin; transport O 2 ; No nuclei in mammals.  Leucocytes = Immune cells.  Platelets = Cell fragments, involved in clotting after damage. Vertebrate Blood

7 Plasma Vertebrate Blood

8 Hematopoesis – Blood Devel.  Hematopoesis = blood development.  Blood islands form in splanchnic mesoderm in yolk sac = 1st site of hematopoesis (always nucleate cells). Early fetal human red blood cells have nuclei.  Additional stem cells in splanchnic mesoderm around heart migrate to hematopoetic areas (spleen, kidneys, liver, & bone marrow in non-avian amniotes).

9  Mostly from splanchnic mesoderm.  Angiogenesis = blood vessel formation  Blood islands in yolk sac merge to form vessels that then extend into rest of embryo. Cardiovascular system starts in yolk sac and spreads to rest of embryo. Vascular Development

10 Human Blood Islands

11 Basic Chordate Arterial Circ.  Blood moves from posterior and ventral to the pharynx (heart/sinus venosus)  Anteriorly under the pharynx (ventral aorta)  Dorsolaterally up through the pharynx (pharyngeal/aortic arches)  Then to the body anteriorly and posteriorly from the dorsal pharynx (dorsal aorta).

12 Lancelet Arterial Circulation ventral aorta (median) sinus venosus (median) dorsal aorta (paired - median)

13 Lancelet Venous Circulation hepatic vein (median) Anterior & posterior cardinal veins (paired) sinus venosus (median)

14 Lancelet Circulation s.v. dorsal aorta dorsal aorta ventral aorta s.v. anterior cardinal vein posterior cardinal vein hepatic vein common cardinal vein

15 Basic Amniote Circulation

16 Early Human Embryo Arterial heart sinus venosus atrium ventricle bulbis cordis umbilical artery ventral aorta (truncus arteriosus) left & right dorsal aortas aortic arch II aortic arch I III IV vitelline artery

17 Early Human Embryo Arterial heart umbilical artery ventral aorta (truncus arteriosus) left & right dorsal aortas III IV VI vitelline artery

18 Early Human Embryo Arterial heart umbilical artery ventral aorta (truncus arteriosus) III IV VI carotids pulmonary descending aorta vitelline artery

19 Early Human Embryo Arterial

20 Embryonic Arteries I II III IV VI I II III IV V VI V ventral aorta dorsal aorta HEART

21 Human Embryonic Arteries I II III IV VI HEART external carotid internal carotid common carotid descending aorta aortic arch subclavian pulmonary artery ductus arteriosus (before birth)

22 Human Embryonic Arteries

23 Human Aortic Arches

24 Human Fetal Circulation Upper Left Arch VI

25 Early Human Embryo Circulation heart sinus venosus atrium ventricle bulbis cordis ventral aorta (truncus arteriosus) allantoic (umbilical) veins vitelline (hepatic) veins left & right anterior cardinal veins left & right posterior cardinal veins left & right common cardinal veins

26 Early Human Embryo Circulation heart allantoic (umbilical) veins vitelline (hepatic) veins left & right anterior cardinal veins left & right posterior cardinal veins azygous vein jugular veins superior vena cava inferior vena cava hepatic portal vein hepatic vein

27 Human Anterior Venous Development

28 Basic Vertebrate Circulation

29  Endothelium = simple squamous epithelium lining inside of blood vessels (tunica intima)  Tunica externa = fibrous connective tissue surrounding the outside of the vessel  Tunica media = between the tunica intima and tunica externa; elastic connective tissue and/or smooth muscle. Blood Vessel Structure

30  Arteries = Large; carry blood away from heart; thick tunica media composed primarily of smooth muscle; accommodate high blood pressure  Capillaries = Very small; gas & nutrient exchange occur here; lack tunica media and tunica externa Vessel Structure

31  Veins = Vessels that carry blood to the heart; thin tunica media made primarily of connective tissue one-way valves promote the return of blood under low pressure Vessel Structure

32 Vertebrate Vessels vein artery tunica intima (endothelium) capillary

33 Adult Human Arterial system

34 deep brachial subclavian axillary brachial radial ulnar internal thoracic humeral circumflex lateral thoracic common iliac external iliac internal iliac deep femoral femoral circumflex femoral popliteal anterior tibial posterior tibial external carotid internal carotid common carotid vertebral aorta* coeliac* superior mesenteric* inferior mesenteric* renal gonadal

35 Pulse Points

36 Carotid & Radial Pulse Points

37 Human Venous System Azygous vein

38 Human Venous System

39 Human Arm Venous System

40 Human Leg Venous System

41 Human Varicose veins

42

43 Hematopoesis  In non-amniotes occurs primarily in the spleen, kidneys, and liver. Especially the spleen.  Hagfishes, lampreys, & lungfishes = no spleen  In amniotes occurs in bone marrow (especially in humans and other mammals) as well as in other tissues. No bone marrow in birds.

44 Subphylum Vertebrata hagfishes lampreys Chondrichthys Actinopterygii coelacanth lungfish amphibians Mammalia Reptilia hemato- poesis in marrow blood cells*erythrocytes lack nuclei * discrete spleen spleen lost

45 Lancelet Circulation

46 Vertebrate Circulation heart ventral aorta external carotid dorsal aorta Iliac artery subclavian artery

47 Vertebrate Circulation anterior & posterior cardinal veins renal portal iliac vein lateral abdominal vein subclavian vein heart hepatic portal jugulars

48  Gnathostomes = Arch I lost in adults; 6 arches early in development  Sarcopterygiians = Pulmonary arteries from arch VI  Tetrapods & Actinopts. = Arch II lost  Amniotes = Arch V lost  Mammals = left Arch IV forms aorta; right Arch IV forms base of subclavian  Birds = right Arch IV forms aorta Aortic Arches

49 Gnathostome Embryo Aortic Arches heart I II III IV V VI internal carotid external carotid dorsal aorta ventral aorta dorsal aorta I II III IV V VI

50 heart Chondrichthyan Aortic Arches I II III IV V VI I II III IV V VI

51 heart Teleost Aortic Arches I II III IV V VI I II III IV V VI

52 Lungfish Aortic Arches pulmonary artery heart I II III IV V VI I II III IV V VI

53 Amphibian Aortic Arches heart I II III IV V VI internal carotid external carotid pulmonary artery I II III IV V VI

54 Lizard Aortic Arches heart I II III IV V VI internal carotid external carotid pulmonary artery I II III IV V VI

55 Bird Aortic Arches heart I II III IV V VI internal carotid external carotid pulmonary artery I II III IV V VI

56 Lepidosaur Aortic Arches heart I II III IV V VI internal carotid external carotid pulmonary artery I II III IV V VI

57 Mammalian Aortic Arches heart I II III IV V VI internal carotid external carotid pulmonary artery I II III IV V VI

58 Subphylum Vertebrata Myxini (hagfishes) lampreys Chondrichthys Actinopterygii coelacanths lungfishes amphibians Mammalia Reptilia arch V lost arch VI forms pulmonary connection arch I lost; 6 arches form in development arch II lost arch II lost

59 Amniota montremes marsupials eutherians turtles lizards & snakes crocodilians birds right arch IV forms aorta left arch IV forms aorta; right arch IV forms right subclavian

60 Gnathostome Adult Aortic Arches Aortic ArchChondrichthysActinopterygiilungfishes Ilost IIgill archlostgill arch IIIgill arch IVgill arch V VIgill arch arch & pulmonary artery

61 Gnathostome Adult Aortic Arches Aortic Archamphibiansturtleslizards Ilost IIlost IIIcommon carotids IVl. and r. aortic arches Vaortic arch (lost in frogs) lost VIaortic arch & pulmonary artery pulmonary artery

62 Gnathostome Adult Aortic Arches Aortic ArchcrocodiliansbirdsMammalia Ilost IIlost IIIcommon carotids com. carotids / subclavian bases common carotids & ext. carotid base IVl. and r. aortic arches l. lost r. aorta l. aorta r. subclavian Vlost VIpulmonary artery

63  Gnathostomes = renal portal vein  Tetrapods = inferior vena cava from right hepatic; anterior cardinal veins form internal & external jugular veins  Mammals = inferior vena cava connects to & replaces renal portal  Some Mammals (humans, cats, etc.) = lose the left anterior cardinal vein (the right anterior cardinal vein = superior vena cava) Venous System

64 sinus venosus hepatic vein hepatic portal anterior cardinal posterior cardinal common cardinal

65 Shark Venous System anterior cardinal posterior cardinal common cardinal renal portal internal jugular subclavian hepatic vein hepatic portal

66 posterior cardinal Amphibian Venous System anterior cardinal common cardinal renal portal hepatic vein hepatic portal subclavian internal jugular external jugular posterior vena cava iliac

67 Reptile Venous System anterior cardinal renal portal hepatic vein hepatic portal internal jugular external jugular posterior vena cava iliac subclavian

68 Mammal Venous System anterior cardinal hepatic vein hepatic portal internal jugular external jugular posterior vena cava iliac subclavian renal vein

69 Gnathostome Venous System VeinsChondrichthysActinopterygiilungfishes ant. card.ant. cardinal com. card.com. cardinal post. card.post. cardinal post. cardinal (rt. = posterior “vena cava”) hepatic2 hepatic veins hep. portalhepatic portal renal port.renal portal

70 Gnathostome Venous System VeinsamphibiansturtlesLepidosauria ant. card.ant. cardinal (jugular vein & brachiocephalics ) ant. cardinal (jugular vein & brachiocephalics ) ant. cardinal (jugular vein & brachiocephalics ) com. card.com. cardinal ( s. vena cavas ) com. cardinal ( s. vena cavas ) com. cardinal ( s. vena cavas ) post. card.post. cardinall. lost r. azygous vein l. lost r. azygous vein hepaticl. hepatic vein r. p. vena cava l. hepatic vein r. p. vena cava l. hepatic vein r. p. vena cava hep. portalhepatic portal renal port.renal portal

71 Gnathostome Venous System VeinscrocodiliansbirdsMammalia ant. card.ant. cardinal (jugular vein & brachiocephalics ) ant. cardinal (jugular vein & brachiocephalics ) ant. cardinal (jugular vein & brachiocephalics ) com. card.com. cardinal ( s. vena cavas ) com. cardinal ( s. vena cavas ) com. cardinal ( s. vena cavas -left s. v. c. lost in some) post. card.l. lost r. azygous vein l. lost r. azygous vein l. lost r. azygous vein hepaticl. hepatic vein r. i. vena cava l. hepatic vein r. i. vena cava l. hepatic vein r. i. vena cava hep. portalhepatic portal renal port.renal portal lost

72 gut  Vein from yolk sac to heart (vitelline vein) impinged on by hepatic diverticulum and forms hepatic capillaries. Hepatic Portal Vein heart vitelline vein (from yolk sac) liver (with hepatic veins) hepatic portal vein

73 Subphylum Vertebrata hagfishes lampreys Chondrichthys Actinopterygii coelacanths lungfishes amphibians Mammalia Reptilia renal portal; subclavians jugular veins; rt. hepatic = posterior vena cava *renal portal lost *

74

75  Heart = Muscular pump, moves blood via rhythmic contraction.  Contraction involuntary & initiated within the heart. (not-neuronal) Modified branching (cardiac) muscle cells transmit contraction signal.  Chamber = Cavity for blood collection separated by valves  Valves = Flaps of tissue that prevent back-flow of fluid (in this case blood) Heart

76 Human Heart Development  Formed from splanchnic mesoderm.  Endocardial tissue = forms simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart chambers and forms the heart valves  Myocardial = epithelium forms heart muscle  Hollow endocardial primordia form by splanchnic mesoderm ingression, then fuse to form a the endocardium (endothelium).  Epithelial splanchnic mesoderm surrounds the endocardium forming the cardiac muscle of the myocardium.

77 Human Heart Development endocardium myocardium

78 Human Heart Development Sinus Venosus (ventral aorta)

79  Sinus venosus = slightly muscular chamber; receives blood from cardinal veins = sinoatrial node (“pacemaker”) in amniotes.  Sinoatrial valve = between s.v. & atrium.  Atrium = slightly muscular chamber.  Atrioventricular valve = between atrium & ventricle.  Ventricle = highly muscular chamber.  Conus arteriosus/ Bulbus arteriosus = chamber after ventricle (muscular with valves = conus; elastic, no valves = bulbus ; embryonic = bulbis cordis) Heart Chambers & Valves

80 Human Heart Development

81  Sinus Venosus lost except some cells that become the sinoatrial node (“pacemaker”)  Sinoatrial valve lost.  Atrium divides into right and left.  Atrioventricular valve divides to form (right) tricuspid and (left) bicuspid/mitral valves  Ventricle divides into right and left. Human Heart Development

82  Bulbis cordis lost.  Ventral aorta (truncus arteriosus) divides to become - (left) ascending aorta that will maintain connection to aortic arches III & IV and - (right) pulmonary trunk artery that will maintain connection to aortic arch VI. Human Heart Development

83 Human Heart Blood Flow

84

85 Heart Chambers & Valves

86 Heart Position/Stethoscope

87

88 Blood Flow From Heart low oxygen high oxygen

89 Heart Chambers & Valves Teleost

90  Sarcopterygiians = at least partially developed interatrial septum  Tetrapods = complete interatrial septum  Amniotes = conus arteriosus lost during devel; sinus venosus incorp. into right atrium; at least partially developed interventricular septum  Mammals & Archosaurs = complete interventricular septum Heart Chambers

91 Heart Chambers & Valves

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93 bulbus arteriosus Subphylum Vertebrata hagfishes lampreys Chondrichthys Actinopterygii coelacanths lungfishes amphibians Mammalia Reptilia partial interatrial septum heart (sinus venosus, atrium, ventricle, conus arteriosus) complete interatrial septum

94 Amniota montremes marsupials eutherians turtles lizards & snakes crocodilians birds conus arteriosus lost in adult; incomplete interventricular septum; sinus venosus lost (in rt. atrium) complete interventricular septum complete interventricular septum

95 Gnathostome Heart ChambersChondrichthysActinopterygiilungfishes Sinus Venosus sinus venosus Atriumatrium atrium (partially l.-r. divided) Ventricleventricleventicleventricle Conus Arteriosus conus arteriosus bulbus arteriosus (not muscular) conus arteriosus

96 Gnathostome Heart Chambersamphibianslizardsturtles Sinus Venosus sinus venosussinoatrial node (incorp. in rt. atrium) Atriumleft atrium right atrium left atrium right atrium left atrium right atrium Ventricleventricleventricle (partial. left-right divided) Conus Arteriosus conus arteriosus lost

97 Gnathostome Heart ChamberscrocodiliansbirdsMammalia Sinus Venosus sinoatrial node (incorp. in rt. atrium) Atriumleft atrium right atrium left atrium right atrium left atrium right atrium Ventricleleft ventricle right ventricle (connected by foramen of Panizza) left ventricle right ventricle left ventricle right ventricle Conus Arteriosus lost

98

99  Plasma in capillaries is forced into the tissues by blood pressure.  Edema = swelling of tissues due to accumulation of fluid (plasma/lymph).  Usually, edema is avoided because… plasma in tissues diffuses into blind lymphatic capillaries and is called lymph. Lymphatic System

100 HIGH PRESSURE heart artery vein capillaries LOW PRESSURE

101  Lymphangitis = inflamation of a lymph vessel. (ROOT WORDS) Lymphangitis of the vessel indicated by the arrow caused the edema in the middle finger. Lymphatic System

102  Lymph vessels = thin walled vessels with valves (similar in structure to veins, but with weak contractile ability); return lymph to venous system.  Lymph nodes (lymphatic cisterns) = expanded lymph vessels filled with connective tissue and leukocytes. Immunological filters.  Lacteals = lymph vessels in villi of the jejuno-ileum (small intestine) absorb fats. Lymphatic System

103 Lymph Vessel

104 Lymph Node & Lg. Vessel (in mesentary proper)

105 Human Cephalic Lymph System

106 Human Lymphatic System

107  Contractile lymph vessels exist in most vertebrates (Form localized Lymph Hearts in hagfishes, lungfishes, amphibians, turtles, liz. & snakes, & ostriches+related birds)  Lacteals = lymph vessels in the intestinal villi – Only in TETRAPODS.  Lymph nodes / sacs / cisterns = expanded lymph vessels filled with connective tissue and leukocytes. Only in AMNIOTES. Lymphatic System

108 Human Lymphatic System

109 Subphylum Vertebrata hagfishes lampreys Chondrichthys Actinopterygii coelacanths lungfishes amphibians Mammalia Reptilia lacteals lymph nodes & cisterns

110

111  Ventilation = movement of air or water across a respiratory surface.  Apnea = cessation of ventilation  Unidirectional ventilation = air/water moves 1 direction over resp. surface  Bidirectional ventilation = air/water moves 2 directions over resp. surface. (tidal)  Concurrent & Counter current exchange General Respiratory Systems

112 Concurrent Same Direction Current to body blood water or air from body (heart)

113 Counter Current Counter Current System to body blood water or air from body (heart)

114 Human Trachea & Lung Development

115 Human Respiratory System nasal cavity pharynx larynx trachea bronchus bronchiole alveolus in lung

116 Human Respiratory System

117 Human Larynx

118 Human Lungs

119 Human Ventilation

120

121  Skin is a significant respiratory surface in many NON-amniotes.  Gills = aquatic pharyngeal respiratory surfaces. (Internal = within pharynx; External = protrude from pharynx) Aquatic Respiratory Structures salamander (axolotl) lungfish reedfish

122 Internal Gills Chondrichthys Actinopterygii

123 Gills  Gill = bony pharyngeal arch and two sets of filaments.  Absent in Amniotes and adult Lissamphibians  Each filament bears many lamellae (small, flat projections) & blood passes through capillaries in the lamellae.  Blood movement through lamellae sets up a counter current system.

124 Gills

125 Counter Current

126 Gill Filament lamella efferent afferent

127 Lungs/Swimbladders  Lung(s) = aerial gut diverticulum respiratory surface. (Osteichthys) In fishes called swimbladder & usually used for buoyancy as well.  Pneumatic duct = Connection to digestive tract in Actinopterygii & Dipnoi. Trachea (in Tetrapods) is a pneumatic duct held open with cartilage rings.

128 Lungs/Swimbladders  Respiratory lungs/swimbladders are often compartmentalized.  Faveoli = non-mammal lung chambers.  Alveoli = rounded mammal lung chambers.

129  Ancestral lungs/swimbladders: Ventral trachea/pneumatic duct. Two “lungs”  Swimbladder of non-reedfish actinopterygiians: Dorsal pneumatic duct. One lung dorsal to esophagus. (Pneumatic duct lost in some teleosts.) Lungs/Swimbladders (Osteichthys)

130 Lungs/Swimbladders Actinopterygii Polypterus lungfish salamander bass carp Amia calva

131 Craniate Respiration hagfishes lampreys Chondrichthys Actinopterygii coelacanths lungfishes amphibians Mammalia Reptilia lungs (swimbladder) gill filaments lost respiratory gills with filaments trachea (with cartilage “rings”) alveoli

132 sturgeons & paddlefish gars bowfin Amia calva TELEOSTS reedfishes Class Actinopterygii single dorsal lung with dorsal connection to digestive tract

133 Aerial Respiratory Modifications  Ancestrally - amphibians & “fishes” - “Swallow” air – push into lungs - Elastic lungs recoil to push air out.  Prehepatic diaphragm (mammals) - Negative pressure pulls air into lungs - Body cavity contraction pushes air out.  Posthepatic diaphragm (crocodilians) - Negative pressure pulls air into lungs - Liver pushes air out of lungs.

134 Ventilation “swallow” air posthepatic prehepatic

135  Parabronchi (birds) = one-way, passageways through the lung faveoli.  Lungs not very compressible.  Air Sacs (birds) = membranous sacs for containing air (9 off of each lung)  Air moved by expansion & contraction of air sacs.  Countercurrent, constant flow of O 2 rich air over capillaries even when exhaling. Bird Respiration

136 Avian Lungs

137 Avian Inhalation

138 Avian Exhalation

139 Avian Respiration

140 Amniota monotremes marsupials eutherians turtles lizards & snakes crocodilians birds prehepatic diaphragm air sacs; parabronchi * posthepatic diaphragm *


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