4Vascular TermsAnastamosis = intercommunication between separate vessels (net like).Portal System = vessels that carry blood from capillaries to capillaries.Sinus = region for “pooling” of fluids.Aortic arch = arterial arches that extend from ventral to dorsal between pharyngeal openings.Gnathostomes have 6 early in devel.
5Vascular Arteries = Large; carry blood away from heart Arterioles = Smaller; carry blood away from heartCapillaries = Very small; gas & nutrient exchange occur hereVeinules = Smaller; carry blood to heartVeins = Large; carry blood to heart
6Vertebrate BloodBlood = connective tissue; cells (in vertebrates) in a water-based matrix.Plasma = matrix around blood cells. Transports: H2O, nutrients, waste, CO2, hormonesErythrocytes = Contain hemoglobin; transport O2; No nuclei in mammals.Leucocytes = Immune cells.Platelets = Cell fragments, involved in clotting after damage.
8Hematopoesis – Blood Devel. Hematopoesis = blood development.Blood islands form in splanchnic mesoderm in yolk sac = 1st site of hematopoesis (always nucleate cells). Early fetal human red blood cells have nuclei.Additional stem cells in splanchnic mesoderm around heart migrate to hematopoetic areas (spleen, kidneys, liver, & bone marrow in non-avian amniotes).
9Vascular Development Mostly from splanchnic mesoderm. Angiogenesis = blood vessel formationBlood islands in yolk sac merge to form vessels that then extend into rest of embryo.Cardiovascular system starts in yolk sac and spreads to rest of embryo.
11Basic Chordate Arterial Circ. Blood moves from posterior and ventral to the pharynx (heart/sinus venosus)Anteriorly under the pharynx (ventral aorta)Dorsolaterally up through the pharynx (pharyngeal/aortic arches)Then to the body anteriorly and posteriorly from the dorsal pharynx (dorsal aorta).
25Early Human Embryo Circulation left & right anteriorcardinal veinsleft & right posteriorcardinal veinsleft & rightcommoncardinalveinsventral aorta(truncus arteriosus)heartsinus venosusatriumventriclebulbis cordisallantoic(umbilical) veinsvitelline(hepatic)veins
26Early Human Embryo Circulation azygous veinjugularveinssuperiorvenacavainferiorhepaticportalveinleft & right anteriorcardinal veinsleft & right posteriorcardinal veinsheartallantoic(umbilical) veinsvitelline(hepatic)veins
29Blood Vessel Structure Endothelium = simple squamous epithelium lining inside of blood vessels (tunica intima)Tunica externa = fibrous connective tissue surrounding the outside of the vesselTunica media = between the tunica intima and tunica externa; elastic connective tissue and/or smooth muscle.
30Vessel Structure Arteries = Large; carry blood away from heart; thick tunica media composed primarily of smooth muscle;accommodate high blood pressureCapillaries = Very small; gas & nutrient exchange occur here;lack tunica media and tunica externa
31Vessel StructureVeins = Vessels that carry blood to the heart; thin tunica media made primarily of connective tissueone-way valves promote the return of blood under low pressure
43HematopoesisIn non-amniotes occurs primarily in the spleen, kidneys, and liver.Especially the spleen.Hagfishes, lampreys, & lungfishes = no spleenIn amniotes occurs in bone marrow (especially in humans and other mammals) as well as in other tissues. No bone marrow in birds.
48Aortic ArchesGnathostomes = Arch I lost in adults; 6 arches early in developmentSarcopterygiians = Pulmonary arteries from arch VITetrapods & Actinopts. = Arch II lostAmniotes = Arch V lostMammals = left Arch IV forms aorta; right Arch IV forms base of subclavianBirds = right Arch IV forms aorta
49Gnathostome Embryo Aortic Arches internalcarotidexternalIIIIIII II III IV V VIdorsalaortaventralIVVVIheartdorsalaorta
50Chondrichthyan Aortic Arches IIIIII II III IV V VIIVVVIheart
51Teleost Aortic ArchesIIIIIII II III IV V VIIVVVIheart
52Lungfish Aortic Arches IIIIII II III IV V VIIVVVIheartpulmonaryartery
53Amphibian Aortic Arches internalcarotidexternalIIIIIII II III IV V VIIVVVIheartpulmonaryartery
54Lizard Aortic Arches internal carotid external I II III I II III IV V VIIVVVIheartpulmonaryartery
55Bird Aortic Arches internal carotid external I II III I II III IV V VI heartpulmonaryartery
56Lepidosaur Aortic Arches internalcarotidexternalIIIIIII II III IV V VIIVVVIheartpulmonaryartery
57Mammalian Aortic Arches internalcarotidexternalIIIIIII II III IV V VIIVVVIheartpulmonaryartery
58Subphylum Vertebrata Myxini (hagfishes) Chondrichthys Actinopterygii coelacanthsamphibianslungfisheslampreysMammaliaReptiliaarch Vlostarch II lostarch IIlostarch VIforms pulmonaryconnectionarch Ilost;6 arches form in development
71Gnathostome Venous System VeinscrocodiliansbirdsMammaliaant. card.ant. cardinal (jugular vein &brachiocephalics)com. card.com. cardinal(s. vena cavas)com. cardinal (s. vena cavas-left s. v. c. lost in some)post. card.l. lostr. azygous veinhepaticl. hepatic veinr. i. vena cavahep. portalhepatic portalrenal port.renal portallost
72liver (with hepatic veins) Hepatic Portal VeinVein from yolk sac to heart (vitelline vein) impinged on by hepatic diverticulum and forms hepatic capillaries.gutliver (with hepatic veins)hearthepatic portal veinvitelline vein(from yolk sac)
75Heart Heart = Muscular pump, moves blood via rhythmic contraction. Contraction involuntary & initiated within the heart. (not-neuronal)Modified branching (cardiac) muscle cells transmit contraction signal.Chamber = Cavity for blood collection separated by valvesValves = Flaps of tissue that prevent back-flow of fluid (in this case blood)
76Human Heart Development Formed from splanchnic mesoderm.Endocardial tissue = forms simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart chambers and forms the heart valvesMyocardial = epithelium forms heart muscleHollow endocardial primordia form by splanchnic mesoderm ingression, then fuse to form a the endocardium (endothelium).Epithelial splanchnic mesoderm surrounds the endocardium forming the cardiac muscle of the myocardium.
81Human Heart Development Sinus Venosus lost except some cells that become the sinoatrial node (“pacemaker”)Sinoatrial valve lost.Atrium divides into right and left.Atrioventricular valve divides to form (right) tricuspid and (left) bicuspid/mitral valvesVentricle divides into right and left.
82Human Heart Development Bulbis cordis lost.Ventral aorta (truncus arteriosus) divides to become- (left) ascending aorta that will maintain connection to aortic arches III & IV and- (right) pulmonary trunk artery that will maintain connection to aortic arch VI.
90Heart ChambersSarcopterygiians = at least partially developed interatrial septumTetrapods = complete interatrial septumAmniotes = conus arteriosus lost during devel; sinus venosus incorp. into right atrium; at least partially developed interventricular septumMammals & Archosaurs = complete interventricular septum
99Lymphatic SystemPlasma in capillaries is forced into the tissues by blood pressure.Edema = swelling of tissues due to accumulation of fluid (plasma/lymph).Usually, edema is avoided because…plasma in tissues diffuses into blind lymphatic capillaries and is called lymph.
100Lymphatic System artery heart capillaries vein HIGH PRESSURE LOW PRESSURE
101Lymphatic SystemLymphangitis = inflamation of a lymph vessel. (ROOT WORDS)Lymphangitis of the vessel indicated by the arrow caused the edema in the middle finger.
102Lymphatic SystemLymph vessels = thin walled vessels with valves (similar in structure to veins, but with weak contractile ability); return lymph to venous system.Lymph nodes (lymphatic cisterns) = expanded lymph vessels filled with connective tissue and leukocytes. Immunological filters.Lacteals = lymph vessels in villi of the jejuno-ileum (small intestine) absorb fats.
107Lymphatic SystemContractile lymph vessels exist in most vertebrates (Form localized Lymph Hearts in hagfishes, lungfishes, amphibians, turtles, liz. & snakes, & ostriches+related birds)Lacteals = lymph vessels in the intestinal villi – Only in TETRAPODS.Lymph nodes / sacs / cisterns = expanded lymph vessels filled with connective tissue and leukocytes. Only in AMNIOTES.
111General Respiratory Systems Ventilation = movement of air or water across a respiratory surface.Apnea = cessation of ventilationUnidirectional ventilation = air/water moves 1 direction over resp. surfaceBidirectional ventilation = air/water moves 2 directions over resp. surface. (tidal)Concurrent & Counter current exchange
112Concurrent Same Direction Current water or air blood from body (heart) to body
113Counter Current Counter Current System water or air blood to body from body (heart)
121Aquatic Respiratory Structures Skin is a significant respiratory surface in many NON-amniotes.Gills = aquatic pharyngeal respiratory surfaces. (Internal = within pharynx;External = protrude from pharynx)salamander (axolotl)reedfishlungfish
123Gills Gill = bony pharyngeal arch and two sets of filaments. Absent in Amniotes and adult LissamphibiansEach filament bears many lamellae (small, flat projections) & blood passes through capillaries in the lamellae.Blood movement through lamellae sets up a counter current system.
127Lungs/SwimbladdersLung(s) = aerial gut diverticulum respiratory surface. (Osteichthys)In fishes called swimbladder & usually used for buoyancy as well.Pneumatic duct = Connection to digestive tract in Actinopterygii & Dipnoi.Trachea (in Tetrapods) is a pneumatic duct held open with cartilage rings.
128Lungs/SwimbladdersRespiratory lungs/swimbladders are often compartmentalized.Faveoli = non-mammal lung chambers.Alveoli = rounded mammal lung chambers.
129Lungs/Swimbladders (Osteichthys) Ancestral lungs/swimbladders:Ventral trachea/pneumatic duct.Two “lungs”Swimbladder of non-reedfish actinopterygiians:Dorsal pneumatic duct.One lung dorsal to esophagus.(Pneumatic duct lost in some teleosts.)
133Aerial Respiratory Modifications Ancestrally - amphibians & “fishes”- “Swallow” air – push into lungs- Elastic lungs recoil to push air out.Prehepatic diaphragm (mammals)- Negative pressure pulls air into lungs- Body cavity contraction pushes air out.Posthepatic diaphragm (crocodilians)- Liver pushes air out of lungs.
135Bird RespirationParabronchi (birds) = one-way, passageways through the lung faveoli.Lungs not very compressible.Air Sacs (birds) = membranous sacs for containing air (9 off of each lung)Air moved by expansion & contraction of air sacs.Countercurrent, constant flow of O2 rich air over capillaries even when exhaling.