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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Blood Vessels. GENERAL 3 Types of Blood Vessels: -Arteries -Veins -Capillaries Typical Blood flow: -Heart  Arteries  Arterioles.

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Presentation on theme: "CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Blood Vessels. GENERAL 3 Types of Blood Vessels: -Arteries -Veins -Capillaries Typical Blood flow: -Heart  Arteries  Arterioles."— Presentation transcript:

1 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Blood Vessels

2 GENERAL 3 Types of Blood Vessels: -Arteries -Veins -Capillaries Typical Blood flow: -Heart  Arteries  Arterioles  Capillaries  Venules  Veins  Heart

3 STRUCTURE OF BLOOD VESSELS 3 Tunics (Coats): -Tunica Intima (Interna) *Innermost, Thin *Endothelium (Simple Squamous E.T.) + C.T. -Tunica Media *Middle, Thickest

4 STRUCTURE OF BLOOD VESSELS continued *Smooth Muscle Fibers, Arranged Circularly *C.T. (Elastic & Collagen) -Tunica Externa (Adventitia) *Fibrous C.T. Sheath

5 The Vascular System Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.8b

6 ARTERIES Carry Blood Away From the Heart Under Highest Pressure Thickest Walled (Tunica Media) Arteries usually carry oxygenated blood Pulmonary Arteries Carry O 2 Poor Blood Systemic Arteries Carry O 2 Rich Blood

7 ARTERIES continued 2 Types of Arteries: -Elastic *Largest (Aorta, Pulmonary Trunk) *Thickest Tunica Media with Increased Elastic Tissue *Can Stretch & Recoil (Elastic Rebound) *Reduces Pressure Differences Between Systole & Diastole

8 ARTERIES continued -Muscular (Distribution) *Tunica Media: Smooth Muscle Fibers > Elastic Fibers *Can Change Diameter *Can Influence Blood Flow & Blood Pressure *Capable of Growth & Establishing Collateral Circ. *Contract when Injured

9 Tunics of Elastic and Muscular Arteries Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.8b

10 ARTERIES continued Arterioles -Smallest arteries -Deliver Blood to Capillaries -Regulate Capillary Blood Flow

11 VEINS Return Blood to the Heart Thinner-walled Wider Lumen, Greater Diameter Tend to be more Superficially Located

12 The Vascular System Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.8b

13 VEINS continued Under Lowest Pressure -Valves *In Veins Carrying Blood Against Gravity Venules -Smallest Veins -Receive Blood from Capillaries

14 The Anatomy of Veins Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.8b

15 VEINS continued Venous Return Assisted By: -Muscular Compression *Skeletal Muscle Contractions *Aids Venous Return -Respiratory Pump *Pressure Drops in Thoracic Cavity During Inhalation, Pulling Blood into Venae Cavae

16 Movement of Blood Through Vessels Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Arterial blood is pumped by the heart  Veins use the milking action of muscles to help move blood Figure 11.9

17 CAPILLARIES Thinnest Walls (tunica intima) Site of Exchange via Diffusion Some capillaries form Capillary Beds Precapillary Sphincters (& smooth muscle in arterioles) regulate blood flow into capillaries

18 Slide 11.28b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.10

19 Hepatic Portal System Carries Venous Blood From Capillaries in Digestive Organs to Capillaries in Liver Contains Substances Absorbed from Digestive Tract (Nutrients, Wastes, Toxins) Liver Stores, Converts, Detoxifies Liver also Receives Arterial Blood from Hepatic Artery

20 Special Circuits: Hepatic Portal System Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.14

21 FETAL CIRCULATION - General Differs from Adult “Non-functional” Lungs & Digestive Tract Primary Functions Carried out by Mom’s Systems Exchange Between Fetal Blood & Maternal Blood Occurs at Placenta

22 FETAL CIRCULATION – Fetal Vessels Placental or Umbilical Vein -Returns O 2 Rich Blood from Placenta to Fetus -Branches Below Liver; 1st Branch Joins Portal Vein Ductus Venosus -Branch of Umbilical Vein (O 2 Rich) -Bypasses Liver; Empties into Inferior Vena Cava

23 Special Circuits: Fetal Circulation Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.15

24 FETAL CIRCULATION – Fetal Vessels continued Foramen Ovale -Interatrial Opening -Bypasses Pulmonary Circ. Ductus Arteriosus -Connects Pulmonary Trunk & Aorta -Bypasses Pulmonary Circ.

25 Special Circuits: Fetal Circulation Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.15

26 FETAL CIRCULATION – Fetal Vessels continued Placental or Umbilical Arteries (2) -Branch off Internal Iliac Arteries -Carry Blood towards Placenta

27 Special Circuits: Fetal Circulation Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.15

28 FETAL CIRCULATION – Fate of Fetal Vessels Umbilical Vein  Round Ligament of Liver Ductus Venosus  Ligamentum Venosum Foramen Ovale  Fossa Ovalis Ductus Arteriosus  Ligamentum Arteriosum Umbilical Arteries  Umbilical Ligaments

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30 Coronary Circuit Part of Systemic circuit Coronary Arteries are 1 st vessels to branch from aorta (ascending aorta) Supply myocardium of heart with oxygen Drain into right atrium via coronary sinus

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