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Blood Vessels Arteries carry blood away from heart Ventral aorta

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Presentation on theme: "Blood Vessels Arteries carry blood away from heart Ventral aorta"— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood Vessels Arteries carry blood away from heart Ventral aorta
Dorsal aorta Aortic arches between the two



4 Key Points There are 7 visceral arches and yet the previous slide only showed 6 aortic arches, why?

5 Ventral aorta & Aortic Arches
Fish Afferent branchial artery Gill capillaries Efferent branchial artery Teleosts – 1 & 2 are gone Lungfish – Pulmonary artery is branch from 6th aortic arch – efferent region



8 Tetrapod Ventral Aorta & Aortic Arches
General pattern 6 arches in embryo 1 & 2 rapidly regress Internal carotid artery is formed from arch 3 plus paired dorsal aortae Fifth aortic arch is gone in most


10 Tetrapod Ventral aorta & Aortic Arches
Pulmonary artery is a branch from arch 6 Common carotid artery is from ventral aorta External carotid artery is from common carotid artery


12 Amphibian Ventral Aorta & Aortic Arches
Urodeles have ductus caroticus present meaning blood in arch three can go cranial or caudal Anurans have no ductus caroticus, so that blood in third aortic arch can only go towards the head


14 Reptile Ventral Aorta & Aortic Arches
Two aortic trunks from conus arteriosus – sends blood to arch 3 and 4 One pulmonary trunk from conus arteriosus – sends blood to 6th aortic arch Otherwise similar to amphibians


16 Birds & Mammals Ventral Aorta & Aortic Arches
One aortic trunk that sends blood to arches 3 and 4 One pulmonary trunk sends blood to arch 6 Fourth Aortic Arch Right side stays in birds Left side stays in mammals Right side of 4th arch becomes subclavian A. in mammals



19 Bird & Mammal Ventral Aorta & Aortic Arches
Ductus arteriosus is in fetus only. It is a bypass of blood from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta Carotids have same general pattern

20 Key Points Why would the mammalian fetus need a bypass from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta?

21 Dorsal Aorta General Pattern
Paired in head & pharynx in embryo and stays paired in adult as internal carotid arteries Single in trunk Becomes the caudal artery


23 Key Points Where do you find the caudal artery in the shark? Compare its location with the notochord and the nerve cord.

24 Dorsal Aorta Ventral Visceral branches
Celiac A. supplies stomach, pancreas, liver Mesenteric A. supplies intestine (may be more than one)


26 Dorsal Aorta Lateral visceral branches Urogenital


28 Dorsal Aorta Somatic branches to skin, spine, muscles
Subclavian A  Brachial A. supplies arm Iliac A  Femoral A. supplies leg



31 Veins Veins start as capillaries and carry blood towards the heart

32 Key Points Define artery Define capillary Define vein Define trunk
Define sinus

33 Cardinal Stream Sharks Common Cardinal Vein
Anterior cardinal vein – drains head Posterior cardinal vein drains kidney, body wall, gonads, and most of body except digestive structures


35 Key Points Trace the blood flow from the shark’s kidney to its ventral aorta.

36 Cardinal Stream Amphibians
Most of postcardinal disappears in anurans, but persists in urodeles


38 Cardinal Stream Amniotes
Postcava (=inferior vena cava = caudal vena cava) Takes the place of the Posterior Cardinal Vein Drains some of hindlimbs in crocodiles, all of hindlimbs in mammals and eventually drains most of trunk and tail, in addition to hind limbs



41 Cardinal Stream in Amniotes
Azygous/Hemiazygous From R. Posterior Cardinal V. Provides alternate route from structures caudal to diaphragm Mammals only



44 Cardinal Stream in Amniotes
Precava (= superior vena cava = cranial vena cava) From Common Cardinal Vein In cats and humans, Right Precava persists and lose most of left.



47 Cardinal Stream in Amniotes
Internal Jugular Vein Drains brain From the Anterior Cardinal Vein


49 Key Points Trace the blood flow from the brain of a crocodile to the sinus venosus.

50 Renal Portal Stream A Portal is a vein that begins and ends in a capillary bed Fish – drains tail to kidney Amphibians – drains hindlimbs to kidneys Reptiles and birds – bypasses kidneys and goes to postcava Mammals –not present


52 Key Points Where are the capillary beds for the Renal Portal Veins in the shark?



55 Abdominal Stream Sharks Lateral abdominal Veins are paired
Iliac V. from pelvic fins Subclavian V from pectoral fins eventually to common cardinal V.


57 Key Points Trace the blood flow from the shark’s pectoral fin back to the sinus venosus of the heart.

58 Abdominal Stream Amphibians
Ventral – single vessel, not paired as in fish No connection to forelimbs


60 Abdominal Stream Reptiles Paired abdominal V
No connection to forelimbs


62 Abdominal Stream Mammals In fetus only
Umbilical Vein becomes the round ligament of the liver in the adult Ductus venosus is a bypass of the liver and becomes the ligament venosum as a remnant in the adult


64 Key Points Summarize the evolutionary trend for venous drainage of the forelimb. Shark Anurans Amniotes




68 Key Points Summarize the evolutionary trend of venous drainage of the hindlimbs Fish Amphibians Reptiles Mammals








76 Hepatic Portal Stream & Hepatic Sinuses
All vertebrates have this Similar in all What is a sinus?

77 Hepatic Portal Stream & Hepatic Sinuses
Vitelline V. from yolk sac to heart early in development Subintestinal Vein from digestive visceral to vitelline Vein



80 Hepatic Portal Stream & Hepatic Sinuses
Hepatic Portal System – develops from one Vitelline V. and Subintestinal V. Hepatic Sinuses – develop within liver from vitelline veins


82 Mammalian Fetal Circulation
Ductus venosus is bypass of liver Ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale of interatrial septum are bypasses of lungs

83 Key Points Why is there a liver bypass in mammal fetus?
Why is there a lung bypass in mammal fetus?

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