Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Cardiovascular system Embryology 2009. Blood and blood vessels Blood islands – vasculogenesis: Blood islands – vasculogenesis: Mesoderm (mesenchyme) Mesoderm.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Cardiovascular system Embryology 2009. Blood and blood vessels Blood islands – vasculogenesis: Blood islands – vasculogenesis: Mesoderm (mesenchyme) Mesoderm."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cardiovascular system Embryology 2009

2 Blood and blood vessels Blood islands – vasculogenesis: Blood islands – vasculogenesis: Mesoderm (mesenchyme) Mesoderm (mesenchyme) FGF2 + VEGF induce differentiation to haemangioblasts (haematopoetic stem cells) and angioblasts (endothelium) FGF2 + VEGF induce differentiation to haemangioblasts (haematopoetic stem cells) and angioblasts (endothelium)

3 Angiogenesis Primary vascular bed is established by vasculogenesis Primary vascular bed is established by vasculogenesis Existing vessels sprout up = angiogenesis (mediated VEGF) Existing vessels sprout up = angiogenesis (mediated VEGF) First blood islands appear in the wall of yolk sac at the 3 rd week of development, and later in mesoderm in other regions. First blood islands appear in the wall of yolk sac at the 3 rd week of development, and later in mesoderm in other regions.

4 Haematopoesis First generation – blood islands - transitory First generation – blood islands - transitory Second generation of stem cells arise from intraembryonic mesoderm – aorta-gonad- mesonephros region. Stem cells colonize liver and spleen: hepato-lienal period Second generation of stem cells arise from intraembryonic mesoderm – aorta-gonad- mesonephros region. Stem cells colonize liver and spleen: hepato-lienal period Later, stem cells colonize bone marrow – definitive blood forming tissue Later, stem cells colonize bone marrow – definitive blood forming tissue

5 Haemopoesis

6 Formation of heart tube Cardiogenic area – in mesoderm in front of buccopharyngeal membrane and future brain Cardiogenic area – in mesoderm in front of buccopharyngeal membrane and future brain Folding of embryonic body – pericardial cavity and heart move to cervical region and later to thorax Folding of embryonic body – pericardial cavity and heart move to cervical region and later to thorax

7 Heart Pair of cardiac primordia fuse except for the most caudal reagion Pair of cardiac primordia fuse except for the most caudal reagion Longitudinal growth – heart tube bulges into the pericardial cavity, it is attached to the body wall by dorsal mesocardium( that disappears later forming transverse pericardial sinus) Longitudinal growth – heart tube bulges into the pericardial cavity, it is attached to the body wall by dorsal mesocardium( that disappears later forming transverse pericardial sinus) Heart is fixed to septum transversum and to the pharyngeal arches (aortal arches) Heart is fixed to septum transversum and to the pharyngeal arches (aortal arches)

8 Cardiac loop Truncus arteriosus Truncus arteriosus Conus cordis Conus cordis Bulbus cordis Bulbus cordis Ventricle Ventricle Atrioventricular canal Atrioventricular canal Common atrium Common atrium Sinus venosus Sinus venosus

9 Development of heart tube Common atrium = atrium Common atrium = atrium Bulbus cordis= trabecular part of right ventricle Bulbus cordis= trabecular part of right ventricle Conus cordis = outflow tract of both ventricles Conus cordis = outflow tract of both ventricles Bulboventricular sulcus= primary inter- ventricular foramen Bulboventricular sulcus= primary inter- ventricular foramen Ventricle = left ventricle Ventricle = left ventricle

10

11 Septum formation in common atrium Timing: development starts at the end of 4 th week Timing: development starts at the end of 4 th week Septum primum extend toward endocardial cushions of atrioventricular canal – ostium primum Septum primum extend toward endocardial cushions of atrioventricular canal – ostium primum Closure of ostium primum + formation of ostium secundum (cell death). Closure of ostium primum + formation of ostium secundum (cell death). Septum secundum – overlap ostium secundum Septum secundum – overlap ostium secundum The opening left by septum secundum – oval foramen The opening left by septum secundum – oval foramen Remaining lower part of septum primum = valve of the oval foramen Remaining lower part of septum primum = valve of the oval foramen

12 Septum formation in the atrioventricular canal Atrioventricular endocardial cushions Atrioventricular endocardial cushions Superior and inferion endocardial cushions fuse – complete division (5 th week) Superior and inferion endocardial cushions fuse – complete division (5 th week) Orifice are surrounded by mesenchymal tissue - valve Orifice are surrounded by mesenchymal tissue - valve

13 Septum formation in the truncus and conus Truncus swellings or cushions – twist around each other – aorticopulmonary septum – septum spirale – dividing truncus into aortic and pulmonary channel Truncus swellings or cushions – twist around each other – aorticopulmonary septum – septum spirale – dividing truncus into aortic and pulmonary channel Swelling in conus fuse together and with truncal Swelling in conus fuse together and with truncal Neural crest cells (hindbrain)- contribution to the formation of the septum – abnormal migration = malformation Neural crest cells (hindbrain)- contribution to the formation of the septum – abnormal migration = malformation

14 Formation of interventricular septum Muscular interventricular septum – muscular wall of ventricles Muscular interventricular septum – muscular wall of ventricles Interventricular foramen Interventricular foramen Conus septum, inferior endocardial cushion and top of interventricular septum fuse forming membranous part of the interventricular septum Conus septum, inferior endocardial cushion and top of interventricular septum fuse forming membranous part of the interventricular septum

15 Development of the arterial system Ventral aorta Ventral aorta Dorsal aorta Dorsal aorta Aortic arches Aortic arches Vitelline arteries Vitelline arteries Umbilical arteries Umbilical arteries

16 Aortic arches I. Terminal part of maxillary artery I. Terminal part of maxillary artery II (Stapedial artery) II (Stapedial artery) III. Common carotid artery IV. Arch of aorta and right subclavian artery VI. Pulmonary artery and ductus arteriosus VI. Pulmonary artery and ductus arteriosus

17 Vitelline and umbilical arteries Arteries supplying yolk sac (number of paired arteries) – vitelline arteries Arteries supplying yolk sac (number of paired arteries) – vitelline arteries They develop in vascular supply of gut – celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric artery They develop in vascular supply of gut – celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric artery Umbilical arteries – paired branches of dorsal aorta – to placenta (allantois) in embryonic stalk or later in umbilical cord Umbilical arteries – paired branches of dorsal aorta – to placenta (allantois) in embryonic stalk or later in umbilical cord It persist as internal iliac and superior vesical arteries (medial umbilical ligaments) It persist as internal iliac and superior vesical arteries (medial umbilical ligaments)

18 Venous system Vitelline veins Vitelline veins Umbilical veins Umbilical veins Common cardinals veins Common cardinals veins

19 Vitelline veins Vitelline veins form plexus surrounding duodenum – pass septum transversum - sinusoids in liver Vitelline veins form plexus surrounding duodenum – pass septum transversum - sinusoids in liver Reduction of left sinus horn – blood flow enter right side of heart – right hepatocardiac channel – hepatocardiac portion of the inferior vena cava Reduction of left sinus horn – blood flow enter right side of heart – right hepatocardiac channel – hepatocardiac portion of the inferior vena cava Network around duodenum – portal vein Network around duodenum – portal vein Left vitelline vein except for hepatic part disappears Left vitelline vein except for hepatic part disappears Right vitteline vein – superior mesenteric vein Right vitteline vein – superior mesenteric vein

20 Umbilical veins Initially pass along liver, then enter liver participating on sinusoids formation Initially pass along liver, then enter liver participating on sinusoids formation Proximal part of both and right left umbilical vein disappear Proximal part of both and right left umbilical vein disappear Peripheral part of left umbilical vein - in umbilical cord Peripheral part of left umbilical vein - in umbilical cord Anastomosis with vena cava (right hepatocardial duct) – ductus venosus Anastomosis with vena cava (right hepatocardial duct) – ductus venosus After birth- ligamentum teres hepatis (from artery) and ligamentum venosum (from duct) After birth- ligamentum teres hepatis (from artery) and ligamentum venosum (from duct)

21 Cardinal veins Anterior cardinal veins – drain cephalic part of embryo Anterior cardinal veins – drain cephalic part of embryo Posterior cardinal veins - drain the rest of embryo Posterior cardinal veins - drain the rest of embryo Common cardinal veins enter sinus horns Common cardinal veins enter sinus horns

22 Anterior cardinal veins Anastomosis between anterior cardinal veins – left brachiocephalic vein – blood from the left side is moved to right Anastomosis between anterior cardinal veins – left brachiocephalic vein – blood from the left side is moved to right Superior vena cava is formed from right common cardinal vein and proximal part of the right anterior cardinal vein Superior vena cava is formed from right common cardinal vein and proximal part of the right anterior cardinal vein Inferior vena cava develops from many different regions and venous systems Inferior vena cava develops from many different regions and venous systems


Download ppt "Cardiovascular system Embryology 2009. Blood and blood vessels Blood islands – vasculogenesis: Blood islands – vasculogenesis: Mesoderm (mesenchyme) Mesoderm."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google