2Key QuestionsWho would direct the process of Reconstruction? The South itself, Congress, or the President?Should the Confederate leaders be tried for treason?How would the south, both physically and economically devastated, be rebuilt? And at whose expense?How would the South be readmitted and reintegrated into the Union?What should be done with over four million freed slaves? Were they to be given land, social equality, education, and voting rights?
3President Lincoln’s Plan Ten Percent PlanProclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863)Full presidential pardons to southerners who:Took an oath of allegiance to the Union and the ConstitutionAccepted the emancipation of slavesState governments could be reestablished as soon as 10% of the population took the oath
4Wade-Davis BillRequired 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegianceRequired a state constitutional convention before the election of state officialsEnacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s libertiesBased on two ideas:“State Suicide” Theory [MA Senator Charles Sumner]“Conquered Provinces” Position [PA Congressman Thaddeus Stevens]
5Thirteenth Amendment Ratified in December, 1865 Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
6Freedmen’s BureauProvided food, shelter, medical aid for the destituteBenefited both blacks (mostly freed slaves) and homeless whitesHad the authority to resettle freed blacks on confiscated farmlandGreatest success in educationEstablished almost 3,000 schools for freed blacks as well as several colleges
8President Andrew Johnson Chosen as running mate in 1864 to encourage pro-Union democrats to vote for the Union (Republican) partyWas the only senator from a Confederate state who stayed loyal to the UnionAnti-AristocratWhite SupremacistAgreed with Lincoln that states had never legally left the Union
10President Johnson’s Plan Plan is similar to Lincoln’s 10% PlanProvided for disfranchisement of certain groupsAll former leaders and officeholders of the ConfederacyConfederates with more than $20,000 in taxable propertyRetains power to pardon “disloyal” southernersFrequently pardoned wealthy plantersMany former Confederates in power by fall, 1865
11Southern Governments – 1865 8 months after Johnson takes office, all 11 of the ex-Confederate states qualified to rejoin the UnionThey repudiated secession, negated debts of the Confederacy, ratified the 13th Amendment.But they didn’t give blacks voting rights and ex-Confederates elected to congressAlexander Stephens, VP of the CSA, elected senator from Georgia
12Black CodesProhibited blacks from renting land or borrowing money to buy landPlaced freedmen into a form of servitude by forcing them as “vagrants” and “apprentices” to sign work contractsWorked in cotton fields under white supervision for deferred wagesProhibited blacks from testifying against whites in court
13Congress Breaks with the President Congress bars Southern Congressional delegatesJoint Committee on Reconstruction createdFebruary, 1866 President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau billMarch, 1866 Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes 1st in U. S. history
14Johnson the MartyrIf my blood is to be shed because I vindicate the Union and the preservation of this government in its original purity and character, let it be shed; let an altar to the Union be erected, and then, if it is necessary, take me and lay me upon it, and the blood that now warms and animates my existence shall be poured out as a fit libation to the Union.(Andrew Johnson, February 1866)
15Fourteenth Amendment Ratified in July, 1868 All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
16The Election of 1866 A referendum on Radical Reconstruction Johnson made an ill-conceived propaganda tour around the country to push his planRepublicans won a 3-1majority in both houses and gained control of every northern state
18Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Military Reconstruction ActRestarted Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th AmendmentDivided the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districtsTenure of Office ActProhibited the president form removing federal officials or military commanders without the Senate’s approval
20President Johnson’s Impeachment Johnson dismisses Edwin Stanton, Secretary of WarHouse charges Johnson with 11 “high crimes and misdemeanors”Impeaches, or indicts himSenate falls one vote short of removing him from officeNeeded 2/3 of SenateDemocrats and more moderate Republicans don’t want to set precedent of removal for political reasons
22The Reconstructed South Former Confederates were barred from votingGave power to three groups:FreedmenScalawags – Southern Unionists/RepublicansCarpetbaggers – Northerners who moved south after the Civil WarHelped blacks gain political powerTwo black Senators and over a dozen Representatives sent to CongressHiram Revels – First African American Senator
23The Election of 1868 Fall 1868—Presidential election Democrats nominate Horatio SeymourRepublicans nominate Ulysses S. GrantVery close election—would have lost without black votes
24More Civil Rights Protections Fifteenth Amendment (1869)Prohibits states from denying a citizen’s right to vote on condition of race, color, or previous condition of servitudeCivil Rights Act of 1875Guarantees equal accommodations in public places, including hotels, railroads, and theatersPoorly enforced, and largely ignored
25The End of Reconstruction Many resented the growing political power of blacks and the corruption of Republican governmentsKKK founded in Tennessee, 1866Used fear and intimidation to dissuade votingCongress reacted with the Force Acts, 1870Authorized the use of federal troops to control vigilante groupsMany groups continued “under cover”Followed by the Amnesty Act, 1872Removes voting restrictions on ex-Confederates, except the highest leaders
26The Election of 1876 Republicans nominate Rutherford B. Hayes Democrats nominate Samuel J. TildenVotes contested in LA, FL, SCSpecial electoral commission created to decide who gets disputed votesVotes 8-7 to give all electoral votes to HayesDemocrats threaten to filibuster the results, send election to the House
28The New South End of federal military presence Democrats regain power in every Southern stateCalled “Redeemer” governmentsBased on the image of the “Lost Cause”Institute a social and legal system of segregation through the passage of Jim Crow LawsUpheld by the Supreme Court in a series of cases:Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896