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Chapter 18 French Revolution and Napoleon

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1 Chapter 18 French Revolution and Napoleon

2 Section 1: The French Revolution Begins
Main ideas: Social equality and economic problems contributed to the French Revolution. Radicals, Catholic priests, nobles, and the lower classes opposed the new order Key Terms: Estate Relics of feudalism Bourgeoisie Sans-culottes

3 Introduction The year 1789 witnessed two far-reaching events: the beginning of a new United States of America and the beginning of the French Revolution. Compared to the American Revolution, the French Revolution was more complex, more violent, and far more radical. It tried to create a new political order and a new social order. It has been seen as a major turning point in European political and social history.

4 American Revolution Review
Concluded with the Treaty of Paris 1783 Recognized the independence of American colonies and the western territory (Appalachians to the Mississippi River)

5 French Revolution (Three Estates)
The causes of the French Revolution include both long-range problems and immediate forces. The long-range causes are to be found in the condition of French society. Before the revolution, French society was based on inequality. Population was divided, as it had been since the Middle Ages, into three estates.

6 First Estates The First Estate consisted of the clergy.
Owned approximately 10 % of the land. Did not have to pay the taille (chief tax)

7 Second Estate Consisted of the nobility
Nobles owned about 25 to 30 % of the land Played an important role in French society in the 1700s. Held many of the leading positions in the government, military, law courts, and higher church offices. Also exempt from the taille

8 Third Estate Commoners of society, made up the majority of the French population. Third Estate was divided by vast differences in occupation, level of education, and wealth. Peasants: constituted 75 to 80 % of the total population, owned about 35 to 40 % of land. Feudalism no longer existed in Europe, but many peasants still had similar obligation to their lords. This brought resentment to many peasants. Another part of the third estate consisted of skilled craftspeople, shopkeepers, and other wage earners in the cities. A rise in consumer prices that was greater than the increase in wages left these urban groups with a decline in buying power. The struggle for survival led many of these people to lay an important role in the revolution, especially in Paris. The middle class or bourgeoisie was another part of the estate. This group was about 8% of the population. They owned 20 to 25 % of the land. Group included merchants, lawyers, holders of public office, doctors, and writers. The middle class was upset about privileges the noble had. This group did have to pay the tax.

9 Financial Crisis French economy suffered periodic crises. Bad harvests in 1787 and 1788 and a slowdown in manufacturing led to food shortages, rising prices for food, and unemployment. Resulted in 1/3 of the population in poverty In spite of these economic problems, the French government continued to spend enormous sums on costly wars and court luxuries. In result of crisis the Estates-General was called to raise new taxes. French parliament had not met since (Why?)

10 National Assembly The Third Estate reacted quickly. On June 17, 1789 it called itself a National Assembly and decided to draft a constitution. 3 days later, on June 20, the deputies of the Third Estate arrived at their meeting place, only to find doors locked The deputies then moved to a nearby indoor tennis court and swore that they would continue to meet until they had produced a French constitution. The oath they swore is known as the Tennis Court Oath.

11 Rebellion Rebellion was seen throughout Paris (commoners/ peasants)
Became known as the Great Fear, a vast panic that spread quickly through France in the summer of 1789.

12 Declaration of the Rights of Man
On August 26, 1789 the National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. Reflecting Enlightenment thought, the declaration went on to proclaim freedom and equal rights for all men, access to public office based on talent, and an end to exemptions from taxation. Citizens has right to take part in making laws. Freedom of speech and press were affirmed.

13 Results Louis XVI stayed at Versailles and refused to accept the laws of the National Assembly. Thousands of Parisian women armed with pitchforks, swords, muskets, and the like marched to Versailles. A delegation of these women met with Louis XVI and told him how their children were starving, forced the king to accept new decrees Royal family returned to Paris, escorted by thousands of women with pikes. Family held prisoner in Paris. Assembly adopted its Constitution in 1791 Church was reformed European monarchs, including Prussia and Austria threatened to help Louis XVI. Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria Defeats in war and economic shortages led to a new political demonstrations. Radicals formed the Paris Commune and organized mob attack on the royal palace and Assembly.

14 Section 2: Radical Revolution and Reaction
Main ideas: Radical groups and leaders controlled the Revolution. The new French Republic faced enemies at home and abroad. Key Terms: Faction Elector Coup d'état

15 Radicalism Georges Danton, sought revenge on those who had aided the king and resisted the popular will. National Convention met in 1792, what should happen to the monarchy? Split groups: urban Mountain and the rural Girondins French Republic emerges, king is beheaded

16 Reign of Terror From 1793 to 1794, the committee of Public Safety and the National Convention tried to defend France from foreign and domestic threats. At home they began what came known as the Reign of Terror. Revolutionary courts prosecuted enemies of the revolution. About 40,000 people were killed during this time Clergy and nobles made up 15 % of the Terrors victims. Robespierre, National Convention executed him and the Terror ended. (Read from book)

17 Directory National Convention created a new constitution reflecting the desire for stability. The Constitution of 1795 established a legislative assembly of two chambers, the Council of 500 and the Council of Elders Directory relied more and more on military might to stay in power. (radicals still present) Napoleon emerges

18 Timeline Place the events in order with your table. You will have 5 min to discuss and come up with a correct timeline. Be ready to share! Louis XVI executed Creation of the Paris Commune Tennis Court Oath Creation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man Great Fear Reign of Terror The Directory is created 3rd estate calls themselves the National Assembly Death of Robespierre Napoleon seizes power

19 Section 3: The Rise of Napoleon
Main Ideas: Napoleon built and lost an empire. Nationalism spread as a result of the French Revolution. Napoleon was exiled first to Elba, and then to St. Helena, where he died. Key Terms: Consulate Nationalism

20 Napoleon Essay In your opinion, was Napoleon an enlightened ruler or a tyrant? Write a position paper supporting your view. Include information on Napoleon’s Civil Code. 1-2 pages 12 font Double spaced Pull out quotes and information from textbook. Due by the end of the hour

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