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The French Revolution and Napoleon

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1 The French Revolution and Napoleon
Chapter 11 The French Revolution and Napoleon

2 Section 1: The French Revolution Begins
French population was divided into three orders (estates): 1st Estate: consisted of clergy – were exempt from the taille (tax) 2nd Estate: consisted of the nobility – held positions in the government, military, courts, and higher church offices – also exempt from the taille

3 3rd Estate: consisted of the commoners (peasants, craftspeople, shopkeepers, and bourgeoisie: merchants, bankers, lawyers, doctors, etc…) – were forced to pay the taille, as well as pay a fee for use of village facilities

4 Causes of the French Revolution:
Aristocrats and bourgeoisie were drawn to the ideas of Enlightenment Bad harvests led to food shortages, rising prices for food, and unemployment Government continued to spend money on costly wars and court luxuries

5 Estates-General Made up of representatives from the three estates
Voting was not equal between the estates The 3rd Estate called itself a National Assembly and decided to draft a constitution

6 On June20, 1789, the 3rd Estate arrived to their meeting place, only to find it locked.
They moved to a nearby tennis court and promised to meet until they produced a French constitution. This became known as the Tennis Court Oath.

7 King Louis XVI was prepared to use force against the 3rd Estate.
The common people stormed the Bastille (armory and prison) and dismantled it brick by brick. Peasant rebellions took place throughout France. **end of notes**

8 On August 4, 1789, the National Assembly voted to abolish the rights and financial privileges of the clergy and nobles. On August 26th they adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. It was inspired by the American Declaration of Independence. It proclaimed equal rights for all men, freedom of speech and ended the tax exemptions.

9 King Louis XVI, who remained at Versailles, refused to accept the National Assembly’s declaration.
A delegation of women met with the king on October 5th to describe the horrible conditions their children were suffering from. The king was forced to accept the new decrees and to move back to Paris to show his support of the National Assembly. The royal family became virtual prisoners in Paris.

10 Church lands were seized and sold because of the need for money.
A new constitution was created – the Constitution of It set up a limited monarchy: there would still be a king but the Legislative Assembly would make the laws.

11 King Louis XVI tried to flee France in June of 1791
King Louis XVI tried to flee France in June of He was captured and brought back to Paris. The rulers of Austria and Prussia were willing to use force to restore full power to the king. The Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria in the Spring of 1792.

12 Upset with the current conditions, radical political groups, declared themselves a commune and organized a mob attack on the royal palace and Legislative Assembly. They took the king captive and took control of power from the National Assembly. **end of notes**

13 Section2: Radical Revolution and Reaction
Under the commune’s control, the Legislative Assembly was forced to call a National Convention to seek revenge on those who had helped the king. Thousands of people were arrested and massacred.

14 On January 21, 1793, the king was beheaded.
On September 21, 1792, the National Convention abolished the monarchy and established the French Republic. On January 21, 1793, the king was beheaded. This causes an uproar with the royalty of other countries. It marks the beginning of the period known as the “Reign of Terror.”

15 The Reign of Terror was enacted to defend France from foreign and domestic threats. It was led by Maximilien Robespierre who was in charge of the Committee of Public Safety. Close to 40,000 people would be killed during the Reign of Terror, including Marie Antoinette.

16 Revolutionary armies were established to bring rebellious cities back under control.
In Lyon, 1,880 citizens were executed. (Some were killed with the guillotine while others were killed with grapeshot.) In Nantes, victims were executed by sinking barges into the local river. **end of notes**

17 Positive effects of the Revolution:
A law aimed at primary education for all was passed. Slavery was abolished. Price limits were placed goods considered a necessity.

18 Other effects of the Revolution:
The National Convention pursued a policy of dechristianization: Saint was removed from street names Churches were closed Priests were encouraged to marry New calendar was adopted – it would not be numbered based from the birth of Jesus. Months were given new names also.

19 Tired of his control, the National Convention eventually condemned Robespierre. He was guillotined on July 28, 1794. The Reign of Terror came to an end.

20 In August of 1795, a new constitution was created that created more stability.
It established a national assembly consisting of two houses: Lower house known as the Council of 500 – initiated legislation Upper house known as the Council of Elders – accepted or rejected the proposed laws

21 From 1795 – 1799, officials in the legislation were corrupt leading people to another public outcry.
In 1799, a coup d'état occurred under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte. **end of notes**

22 Section 3: The Age of Napoleon
Napoleon was born in 1769. He quickly rose in rank in the French military. He received his education in French military schools. He became a lieutenant in the military in 1785. By the age of 24 he was a brigadier general. In 1796, he was made a commander of the French armies in Italy.

23 When the coup d'état occurred, Napoleon was only 30.
A consulate was established as a new government. In 1802, Napoleon was made consul for life. In 1804, he crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I.

24 His most famous domestic achievement was his codification of the laws.
He condensed the 300 different legal systems into on seven codes of law. After his grand army defeated the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies, he was ready to create a new European order.

25 Napoleon had hoped that his Grand Empire would last for centuries
Napoleon had hoped that his Grand Empire would last for centuries. However, it collapsed for two reasons: Great Britain Nationalism

26 The downfall of Napoleon began with his invasion of Russia in 1812.
The Russians retreated from the advancing French military, burning their own villages and countryside to keep his army from finding food. They retreated under terrible winter conditions, killing most of the troops.

27 Napoleon was captured in March of 1814 and exiled to the island of Elba.
Monarchy was restored to France under King Louis XVIII Napoleon escaped a year later, only to be recaptured and exiled to St. Helena. **end of notes**

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