Background Many problems with the conditions of society Society was based on inequality
Three Estates First Estate: clergy (130,000 people; owned 10% of land Second Estate: nobility (350,000 people; owned 25 to 30% of land); held leading positions in government, military, law courts, and higher church offices; exempt from tax Third Estate: commoners; divided by differences in occupation; peasants made up 75 to 80% of the population (owned 35 to 40% of land); bourgeoisie (middle class – 8% of the population); skilled craftspeople
Financial Crisis Collapse of government finances Bad harvests Slowdown in manufacturing Had to call Estates-General to raise taxes
Estates-General to National Assembly In the Estates-General each estate had one vote. Third Estate wanted each deputy to have a vote Third Estate becomes National Assembly and wants a constitution – Tennis Court Oath: vow to make a constitution Storming of the Bastille (an armory and prison in Paris) Revolution breaks out
Destruction of the Old Regime National Assembly voted to abolish rights of landlords and the financial privileges of nobles and clergy Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen: basic liberties; reflected Enlightenment ideals; freedom and equal rights for all men Olympe de Gouges: Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen
King Concedes King did not accept the things the National Assembly did Parisian women marched on Versailles Made king return to Paris and support National Assembly
Church Reforms National Assembly seized church lands for money Church was secularized; officials were elected by the people and paid by the state
New Constitution and New Fears Constitution of 1791: set up limited monarchy; still a king, but Legislative Assembly would make the laws Many wanted more drastic change and opposed the new order. (radicals)
War with Austria Fear that revolution would spread to other countries Austria and Prussia threaten to use force to restore monarchy Legislative Assembly declares war on Austria
Rise of the Paris Commune A radical group in Paris Angry about defeats in war and economic issues Attack the royal palace and the Legislative Assembly Took king captive; forced Legislative Assembly to suspend monarchy and call for a National Convention Members called sans-culottes
Assignment List the causes of the French Revolution
American Revolution/French Revolution Evaluate how the American Revolution differed from the French Revolution. – What was the long-term impact of each revolution on political developments around the world? – Why was the French Revolution so much more violent than the American Revolution? This is to be handed in as a one-page paper.
DBQ Read page 662 Answer the three questions in complete sentences.