Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The French Revolution & Napoleon

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution & Napoleon"— Presentation transcript:

1 The French Revolution & Napoleon
Chapter 18

2 I. The Revolution Begins
French Revolution seen as major turning point in European history: Sought to change both political & social order Became a model for revolution world-wide Demonstrated the power of nationalism Showed the power of “enlightened” ideas The masses challenged the protected interests of the privileged few… “LIBERTY!!! EQUALITY!!! FRATERNITY!!!”

3 I. The revolution Begins
Causes of French Revolution The Three Estates: Population had been divided into groups since Middle Ages. 1st Estate: Clergy (no taxes) 0.5% of pop., they own 10 % of the land 2nd Estate: Nobility (no taxes) 1.5% of pop., they own 25% 3rd Estates: Commoners (pay all taxes) 98% of pop., own 65% of the land Peasants, skilled craftspeople, and… Bourgeoisie (middle class) merchants, bankers, professionals Common bond: distrust the monarchy “The Three Estates”

4 I. The revolution Begins
Causes of French Revolution Financial Crisis Poverty rate soars thru countryside Drought, Bad harvests Food shortages, rising prices Unemployment 1/3 of pop. starving on eve of revolution Enormous Gov’t spending of Louis XVI Costly wars Heavy spending to help U.S. defeat British Glamorous lifestyle of Marie Antoinette Peasant, King Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette

5 I. The revolution Begins
Causes of French Revolution The Age of Enlightenment Challenged the Divine Right of Kings Appealed to problems of middle class Said economy would flourish w/ free commerce (laissez-faire) The Rule of King Louis XVI Preferred personal life to court life Strongly influenced by Marie Incapable of strong, decisive action American Revolution Showed successful revolution possible French army introduced to new ideas… King Louis XVI

6 I. The revolution Begins
The Fall of the Old Regime Debt forces Louis XVI to call Parliament Each of the 3 Estates get 1 vote Third Estate (largest) demanded more Called themselves National Assembly Locked out Tennis Court Oath Meet until they wrote a Constitution Louis planned to use force on National Assembly, but… Storming of the Bastille Armory & Prison in Paris Angry mob attacked & destroyed it, “Great Fear” controls Paris, countryside Louis can’t trust army, nearly powerless The Storming of the Bastille; July 14, 1789

7 I. The revolution Begins
The Fall of the Old Regime (cont.) Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Equality for all MEN (women excluded) Access to public office based on talent End to tax exemptions Free speech and press Louis XVI concedes his power Originally refused Declaration, but… Becomes a prisoner in his own kingdom Forced to move royal family to Paris Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

8 II. The Revolution Gets Radical
Paris Commune 3 yrs later(1792) conditions had not improved Radical political groups form mob, attack palace and legislative assembly Hold Louis XVI captive Call for a national convention for new gov’t based universal suffrage (all adult males) Members call themselves sans-culottes “Without breeches (fancy pants)” Wanted revenge…on who? Thousands arrested, massacred Led by Georges Danton Paris Commune

9 II. The Revolution Gets Radical
Paris Commune (cont.) At the National Convention… Abolished the monarchy Split over fate of Louis XVI Girondins (rural): let him live The Mountain (urban, radical):off w/ his head Louis, Marie condemned to death by guillotine Other nations appalled, join to attack France Fear of invasion, internal unrest leads to Committee on Public Safety Takes control of govt. beginning “Reign of Terror” Flyer supporting the execution of Louis XVI

10 II. The Revolution Gets Radical
The Reign of Terror Led by Maximilien Robespierre Goal: Unify, Protect, Cleanse France 40,000 enemies of revolution executed 15% Nobles & Clergy, 85% Commoners Policy of Dechristianization Churches pillaged and closed “Saint” removed from street names Cathedral of Notre Dame: Temple of Reason New calendar (why?) Efforts ignored by largely Catholic public Radicalism ends with death of Robespierre The guillotine was used to kill over 16,000 French citizens.

11 II. The Revolution Gets Radical
The Directory 1795: New constitution, more stability Bi-cameral (?) legislature Lower house (500 members) wrote laws Upper house (250) approved or rejected laws 5 men to serve as executives Shared power w/ legislature Time of corruption Could not fix economy Relied heavily on military 1799: coup d’etat by Gen. Napoleon Bonaparte The Eighteenth of Brumaire, by Francois Bouchot

Download ppt "The French Revolution & Napoleon"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google