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Early Republic A New Nation

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Presentation on theme: "Early Republic A New Nation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Republic A New Nation

2 America’s 1st President
George Washington America’s 1st President

3 Section 1 – The First President Taking office…
Washington was the top vote getter 2nd runner up was John Adams – becomes the Vice-President April 30, 1789 – inaugurated/sworn in New York City Inauguration – the ceremony in which the President takes the oath of office

4 Taking office… All eyes were on him – everything he did set a precedent for following presidents Precedent – an act or a decision that sets an example for others to follow. Congress decided to call him “Mr. President”

5 Washington faced several major challenges as he worked to create a functioning federal republic as he worked to establish the foreign and domestic policies for the United States Define the authority of the central government Create a stable economic system Build a military Maintain national security Conduct foreign relations Enter into treaties with Indian tribes

6 The First Cabinet… Congress created departments to help the President lead the nation Secretary of War Secretary of Treasury Secretary of State Attorney General


8 Economic Problems… $54 million in national debt
National debt: the total amount of money that a government owes to others Hamilton created a plan that reflected his belief in a strong central government Thought that the government should encourage business and industry (free enterprise)

9 Hamilton’s Financial Plan (as Secretary of Treasury)
Pay off all war debts Create a national bank Establish a whiskey tax Create protective tariffs Establish the nation’s credit Place to deposit collected taxes Led to Whiskey Rebellion Ended up hurting American businesses and farmers

10 Hamilton’s Financial Plan (as Secretary of Treasury)
He also promised to build a new capital city in Virginia (later named Washington DC)

11 Hamilton’s Financial Plan (as Secretary of Treasury)
The only part of Hamilton’s plan that was not approved was the protective tariff

12 THOUGHT SPOT Imagine you are a representative in Congress in Would you have supported Hamilton’s financial plan? Why or why not?

13 Conflict Madison and Jefferson believed Hamilton’s plan would only benefit the wealthy They also believed the Constitution did not give the federal government the right to create a national bank A rift begins to form among Washington’s government officials, and political parties begin to arise

14 First 2 Political Parties
Federalists Democratic-Republicans (often called just Republicans)

15 Causes Differences philosophy of government
interpretation of Constitution economic interests perspective on foreign affairs

16 Effects 2 parties can propose different solutions
Each party nominates candidates Political parties become a way of American life

17 Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans
Main Party Leaders Federalists Democratic-Republicans Alexander Hamilton, John Adams Thomas Jefferson, James Madison

18 Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans
Constitutional Views Federalists Democratic-Republicans “Loose” – should take necessary steps to govern the nation “Strict” – should only have powers stated in the Constitution

19 Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans
Views on Government Federalists Democratic-Republicans Favored a strong national government Favored states’ rights

20 Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans
Views on Foreign Policy Federalists Democratic-Republicans Pro-British – feared mob rule Pro-French – sympathized with the want for freedom

21 Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans
Main Supporters Federalists Democratic-Republicans Merchants and manufacturers (wealthy) Farmers and skilled craftsmen

22 Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans
Who Should Vote Federalists Democratic-Republicans Only those who own property (wealthy) Open to all adult males

23 Whiskey Rebellion… Farmers living west of the Appalachian Mountains often converted their excess grain into whiskey, which was easier to carry over the mountains than bushels of grain The new federal whiskey tax imposed by Congress caused great hostility among them

24 Whiskey Rebellion… Farmers in western Pennsylvania refused to pay the tax and threatened tax collectors Washington quickly called up the militia to put down the rebellion Washington was ready to use force, but the rebel farmers fled before any fighting took place Proved the federal government was not afraid to use military force to enforce the law

25 Whiskey Rebellion… The WHISKEY REBELLION tested the will of the new government. Washington’s quick response proved to Americans that their new government would act firmly in times of crisis. The President also showed those who disagreed with the government that violence would not be tolerated.

26 THOUGHT SPOT How were Shays’ Rebellion and the Whiskey Rebellion handled differently? Explain your answer. Watch video

27 Setting Up the Courts… Constitution created the Supreme Court but left many things for Congress to decide, such as… the # of justices how much power the Supreme Court would have creation of the federal court system

28 Judiciary Act of 1789 Set up federal courts with the power to reverse state court decisions Washington named John Jay as the first Chief Justice

29 Washington’s Foreign Policy & the French Revolution 1789
French farmers and poor – rebelled against King and Queen (who were beheaded) French people wanted a constitution with rights — like the US had America’s success in the American Revolution influenced the French Revolution

30 Washington’s Foreign Policy & the French Revolution 1789
France declared war on Britain in 1793 US was put in an awkward position Jefferson – US should help because the French helped us in the American Revolution Hamilton – but Britain’s trade was too important to risk for war

31 Washington’s Foreign Policy & the French Revolution 1789
Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutrality in April 1793 Stated that US would not get involved in European affairs President Washington refused to help the French against their government This was a defeat to Jefferson; this along with other defeats led Jefferson to leave the cabinet

32 Most Important Precedent…
Refused to run 3rd term Worried the executive branch would be too powerful Followed until 1940

33 Washington Retires Served from 1789-1797
Greatly admired by the American people 8 years in office created national unity 2nd term – difficult due to splits in political ideology

34 Farewell Advice – AVOID PDA!
US should remain neutral dealing with other countries – avoid alliances Political differences could weaken the nation – DO NOT split into political parties! Avoid national debt

35 Washington’s Farewell Address
“ Tis our true policy to steer clear of permanent Alliances, with any portion of the foreign nations … to have them as little political connection as possible.” – George Washington Farewell Address, 1796 Washington did not oppose foreign trade, but rejected alliances that could drag the nation into war. His advice guided foreign policy for many years!


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