3 This cartoon represents the social order in France before the French Revolution. While a member of the Third Estate is beginning to express anger and rise up, a nobleman representing the Second Estate and a priest, representing the First Estate, recoil in surprise and fear.
4 The First EstateConsisted of Clergy membersOwned 10% of landCollected tithesTax-exempt
5 The Second Estate Consisted of the titled nobility Held top jobs in the govt, army, church, and courtsOwned 20% of landTax-exemptHad exclusive hunting privileges
6 The Third Estate Made up 97% of population Paid about 50% of their income in taxesDues to noblesCorvee – unpaid labor to repair roadsTithes to the ChurchTaxes to the king
7 The Third Estate Bourgeoisie- Middle Class Jobs included merchants, bankers, lawyers, doctors and professors (fam. w/ Enlightenment ideas)Most were educated and well off, but paid very high taxes, lacked privileges.
8 The Third Estate Peasants and urban workers made up the rest The smallest rise in food prices could cause widespread starvationProstitution and child abandonment were commonForbidden to hunt for food
9 Causes of the French Revolution 1. Resentment of the Third Estate/Social Inequality (Old Regime)2. Enlightenment Ideas- The Old Regime did not pass the test of reason. Success of American Revolution key.
10 Causes of the French Revolution 3. Economic ProblemsDeficit spending – L16 and Marie Antoinette – “Madame Deficit”Huge national debt (half of all tax revenue was going toward interest alone.)Poor harvests caused the price of bread to double in 1789
12 Causes of the French Revolution 4. Weak Leadership- Louis XVI was indecisive- neglected duties as king- preferred hunting and tinkering with locks as hobbies
13 The Estates-GeneralHad not been called together in 175 yrs – years of absolutismWith France on the verge of bankruptcy, L16 called it together on May 5, 1789 at Versailles
14 The National AssemblyThird Estate wanted voting reform = 1 vote per delegate, instead of 1 vote per estate. Louis XVI and nobles refused.Declared themselves the National AssemblyThe Tennis Court Oath:“vow to never separate” until they had drawn up a new constitution
16 Storming the BastilleSensing trouble, Louis XVI stationed foreign troops around Paris.Fearing that the king was going to try to stop the new reforms of the National Assembly or order the troops to massacre them, French citizens decide to arm themselves.
17 Storming the BastilleBastille- a medieval fortress used to hold political prisonersA mob of 800 stormed the prison:In search of guns and ammunitionTo revolt against a symbol of tyrannyThe commander and 5 guards were beheaded; heads paraded through the city.July 14: Bastille Day- independence day
18 The Revolution Spreads The “Great Fear” – rumors caused panic; peasants set fire to manor recordsAug 4 – nobles voted to end their privileges: gave up feudal dues, hunting rights, and tax exemptionThe Old Regime was dead!
19 “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights” Declaration of the Rights of ManAdopted by the N.A. on Aug. 27“Men are born and remain free and equal in rights”Women’s March on Versailles (Oct 5)6,000 women marched 12 miles in the rain from Paris to Versailles demanding bread. Forced L16 and family to return to Paris.
20 National Assembly Reforms Voted to sell church lands to pay off France’s huge debt.The Church was placed under state control.Even peasants who wanted change protested this. Why?This act drove a wedge between the peasants and bourgeoisie.
21 National Assembly Reforms Constitution of 1791Transformed France into a constitutional monarchy (instead of absolute)Gave the new Legislative Assembly the power to make laws, collect taxes, etc…King Louis XVI and family tried to escape, but were recognized and forced to return to Paris under house arrest.