2Preparing for the Estates-General Winter ofMembers of the estates elected representativesCahiersTraditional lists of grievances written by the peopleNothing out of the ordinaryAsked for only moderate changes
3Meeting of the Estates-General: May 5, 1789 Voting was conducted by estateEach estate had one voteFirst and Second Estates could operate as a bloc to stop the Third Estate from having its way◊ First Estate + ◊ Second Estate - vs. - ◊ Third EstateRepresentatives from the Third Estate demanded that voting be by populationThis would give the Third Estate a great advantageDeadlock resulted
4IF VOTING WAS BY POPULATION First Estate = 1 Vote or 130,000 VotesSecond Estate = 1 Vote or 110,000 VotesThird Estate = 1 Vote or 25,000,000 VotesIF VOTING WAS BY POPULATION
5The Tennis Court Oath“The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of the public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its deliberations in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and, finally, that wheresoever its members are assembled, there is the National Assembly; “Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.”
7Tennis Court OathOn June 23, 1789, Louis XVI relented. He ordered the three estates to meet together as the National Assembly and vote, by population, on a constitution for France.The Third Estate relocated to a nearby tennis court where its members vowed to stay together and create a written constitution for France.Louis XVI responded by locking the Third Estate out of the meeting – June 20, 1789.The Third Estate declared itself to be the National Assembly – June 17, 1789.
8The Storming of The Bastille The Bastille was a large fortress which doubled as a prison; to the revolutionaries it was a sign of opression.On July 14th, 1789 the people and some soldiers stormed the fortress looking for prisoners (of which there were only seven) and weapons to fight back against the King’s army.This became the point where reform turned into the full fledged revolution.
9Four Phases (Periods) of the French Revolution National Assembly ( )Legislative Assembly ( )Convention ( )Directory ( )
10National Assembly ( )Louis XVI did not actually want a written constitutionWhen news of his plan to use military force against the National Assembly reached Paris on July 14, 1789, people stormed the Bastille
11Uprising in Paris People of Paris seized weapons from the Bastille July 14, 1789Parisians organized their own government which they called the CommuneSmall groups – factions – competed to control the city of ParisUprising spread throughout FranceNobles were attackedRecords of feudal dues and owed taxes were destroyedMany nobles fled the country – became known as émigrésLouis XVI was forced to fly the new tricolor flag of France
13Consolidating the Revolution August 4, 1789National Assembly swept away much of the Old RegimeKing no longer rules of divine rightConstrained by powers spelled out in a constitutionAdopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
14Declaration of the Rights of Man Freedom of religionFreedom of speechFreedom of the pressGuaranteed property rights“Liberty, equality, fraternity!”Right of the people to create lawsRight to a fair trial
15Declaration of the Rights of Woman Journalist Olympe de Gouges argued in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman that women are equal citizens and should benefit from governmental reforms just as men did.Madame Jeanne Roland also served as a leader in the women’s rights movement, and was able to heavily influence her husband (a government official).Women did gain some rights during the French Revolution, but these were designed for purposes other than liberating women.Women could inherit property, but only because doing so weakened feudalism and reduced wealth among the upper classes.Divorce became easier, but only to weaken the Church’s control over marriage.
16Goodbye, Versailles! Adieu, Versailles! Parisian Commune feared that Louis XVI would have foreign troops invade France to put down the rebellionLouis XVI’s wife, Marie Antoinette, was the sister of the Austrian emperorA group of women attacked Versailles on October 5, 1789Forced royal family to relocate to Paris along with National AssemblyRoyal family spent next several years in the Tuileries Palace as virtual prisoners
18End of Special Privileges Church lands were seized, divided, and sold to peasantsCivil Constitution of the Clergy required that Church officials be elected by the people, with salaries paid by the government2/3 of Church officials fled the country rather than swear allegiance to thisAll feudal dues and tithes were eradicatedAll special privileges of the First and Second Estates were abolished
19Reforms in Local Government The 30 provinces and their “petty tyrants” (Intendants) were replaced with 83 new departmentsRuled by elected governorsNew courts, with judges elected by the people, were established
20*** Compare and Contrast the views of Burke “Reflections on the Revolution” and Paine “Rights of Man” on this stage of French Gov’t -- text pages 80 &81
21Constitution of 1791 Democratic features France became a limited monarchyKing became merely the head of stateAll laws were created by the Legislative AssemblyFeudalism was abolishedUndemocratic featuresVoting was limited to taxpayersOffices were reserved for property ownersThis newly created government became known as the Legislative Assembly (Phase 2 of Rev.)
22Changes under the National Assembly Abolishment of guilds and labor unionsAbolition of special privilegesConstitution of 1791Declaration of the Rights of ManEquality before the law (for men)Many nobles left France and became known as émigrésReforms in local governmentTaxes levied based on the ability to pay
24Constitution of 1791Sept. 1791: Constitution accepted by Louis – Paris celebrated the ‘end of the Revolution’Oct. 1791: Legislative Assembly held first sessionDemocratic features:France had become a limited constitutional monarchy (King was merely the head of state)All laws were created by the Legislative Assembly (name of new government)Feudalism was abolishedUndemocratic features:Voting was limited to male taxpayersOffices were reserved for property owners
25Legislative Assembly (1791-1792) Royal family sought help from AustriaIn June, 1791, they were caught trying to escape to AustriaNobles who fled the revolution lived abroad as émigrésThey hoped that, with foreign help, the Old Regime could be restored in FranceChurch officials wanted Church lands, rights, and privileges restoredSome devout Catholic peasants also supported the ChurchPolitical parties, representing different interests, emergedGirondistsJacobins
26The Radical PhaseElection of the new Legislative Assembly (Oct 1791)745 deputiesGirondins (majority)FeuillantsJacobinsConservative monarchists who wanted to limit further changesRepublican, supported by peasantsEqual rights for allRepublican, more radical, highly centralized republic, supported by mob
27Events and Opposition… April 1792: Legislative Assembly declared war on AustriaAssembly was afraid members of Austrian Royal family (Marie Antoinette’s family) would attack revolutionariesLeftists hoped war would spread Revolution to EuropeReactionaries hoped preoccupation with war would cool off Revolution; defeat might restore old RegimeFollowing declaration of war, Austrian and Prussian troops invade FranceIn the uproar of war, the Commune took control of Paris – lead by Danton (a Jacobin)Voters began electing representatives for a new convention – would write a republican constitution for FranceRepublic: a government in which people elect representatives who will create laws and rule on their behalfSept. 1792: thousands of nobles were executed under suspicion that they were conspirators in the foreign invasion, and 1200 prisoners in Paris were killed for being counter-revolutionaries (event known as September massacre)
29The Convention Sept. 22, 1792: the Convention met for the first time First act: Establish the first French RepublicOpposition from within: fighting between different parties (moderate/majority Girondists and radical Jacobins allied with sans-culottes)Opposition from abroad: Austria, England, Holland, Prussia, Sardinia, and Spain formed a Coalition invading France= France was fighting an internal civil war and an external hostile war
30Abolishment of the Monarchy As long as the royal family lived, the monarchy could be restoredKing and Queen were put on trial for treason (trying to leave France)Jan. 21, 1793: Louis XVI guillotinedOct. 16, 1793: Marie Antoinette guillotinedDaughter allowed to go to Vienna in (could never become Queen)Son beaten until he died in prison (only 10 years old!)
31The Counter Counter-Revolution (i. e The Counter Counter-Revolution (i.e. against those who were against the Revolution…)The Convention feared counter revolts against the weakening Girondists, therefore…Strengthened laws against emigrésEstablished Watch Committees (March 1793)April 1793: Created the Committee for Public Safety (CPS) – original purpose was to eliminate counter-revolutionary movements, raise new armies, and assure food supplies for both armies and citiesFirst leader: Danton (Jacobin)
32Reign of Terror September 5, 1793-July 27, 1794 (still during the time of the Convention…)
33EventsWhile the Convention remained the official government, it was the CPS that had all the power – despite military success, the Convention continued to face problems domesticallyJacobins (lead by Danton) came to dominate French politicsTwo months after the creation of the CPS, it was ‘re-created’ with 12 new representative, all extremist revolutionariesLead first by Danton, later RobespierreAnyone accused of treason was put on trial by the Committee’s Revolutionary Tribunal …Officially 16,000 people died on the guillotine (9 month period) - historical records suggest closer to 50,000* Members of the CPS saw the Terror and the war as a national mission against evil inside and outside France (“enemies of liberty”)
34The Guillotine: the “National Razor” During the 1700s, executions in France were public events – most common execution was quartering – upper-class criminals could buy their way into less painful deathsDoctor Joseph Guillotin wanted a capitol punishment method equal for all classes – invented guillotine (named after him)
35Growing coalition against the French European countries (Coalition) were afraid revolutionary ideals would spread (wanted to restore monarchy), while France wanted to spread its ideas – called wars “revolutionary wars”The Convention drafted Frenchmen into the army – the people supported military operations because they did not want the country back under the Old Regime (very effective as citizens’ army fighting for ideals)One group of guardsmen from the provinces came singing “Marseillaise” (written by Rouget de Lisle) – song came to inspire troops while lead into battle, became the French national anthemTwo years of wars resulted in the Coalition being defeated and France gaining territory
36The CPS: A new cultureReplaced all formality of aristocracy and monarchy – people were even executed for using former ‘titles’, now had to refer to everyone as ‘citizen’Anti-Christianity: goal was to destroy the churchForced Priests to marryAbolished CatholicismNotre Dame became the “Temple of Reason”Made a new calendar to replace the old Christian calendar, began with 1792 as the birth of the new RepublicNamed months after seasons
37So… how did the Reign of Terror end? Girondists tried to end the Terror – many were executed by the CPS for treasonDanton eventually wanted to end the executions, resulted in himself being executed for treasonCPS taken over by Robespierre – became even more violentConvention came to blame Robespierre for TerrorJune 1794: military success in war – French people becoming angry over the violence of the TerrorLead to “Thermidorean Reaction” – July 27 Terror ended, Robespierre guillotined July 28
39The Directory1795 (year III of the Republic): with foreign invaders defeated and the Reign of Terror over, the Convention was finally able to inaugurate its new constitution: created the DirectoryThe Government under the Directory:The new constitution split the nation’s power between a two-housed Assembly and a Directory of 5 menExecutive: 5 men appointed by the legislatureLegislature: Lower house (500 members) proposed laws, Upper house (250 members) voted on these laws
40The Directory suffered from corruption and poor administration People of France grew poorer and more frustrated with their governmentEven with these struggles (or perhaps because of them), the French developed strong nationalism, which was fueled by military successesWhat came next…? Napoleon Bonaparte, coming to power through a coup d’etat (1799) to end the ten year period of the French Revolution!