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U NIT 4: A NATOMY & P HYSIOLOGY F OR S PORT BTEC Level 2 Diploma In Sport Unit Code: D/502/5474 Credit Value: 5 Guided Learning Hours: 30.

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Presentation on theme: "U NIT 4: A NATOMY & P HYSIOLOGY F OR S PORT BTEC Level 2 Diploma In Sport Unit Code: D/502/5474 Credit Value: 5 Guided Learning Hours: 30."— Presentation transcript:

1 U NIT 4: A NATOMY & P HYSIOLOGY F OR S PORT BTEC Level 2 Diploma In Sport Unit Code: D/502/5474 Credit Value: 5 Guided Learning Hours: 30

2 A IM AND P URPOSE The aim of this unit is to give learners a good understanding of the structure and function of the skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular and respiratory systems of the human body. U NIT I NTRODUCTION A healthy body is an amazing piece of machinery which allows us to go from total rest to all-out sprinting in a matter of seconds. Trained sportspeople are able to run, cycle and swim marathon distances. This ability is due to the efficiency of the physiological systems that work together to enable such activity. An understanding of these systems is imperative in the sport and exercise industries in order to appreciate how the body copes with the stress of exercise. This unit explores the foundation of anatomy and physiology of the four main body systems. The unit starts by exploring the skeletal system and includes the main bones, joints and movement. The muscular system is then examined, the main muscles, antagonistic pairs and types of contraction are covered. The structure and function of the cardiovascular system is then covered which includes the structure of the heart and the blood vessels that carry blood all around the body. To complete the unit, the respiratory system is explored and includes the mechanics of breathing and gaseous exchange. L EARNING O UTCOMES On completion of this unit a learner should… 1. Know the structure and function of the skeletal system. 2. Know the structure and function of the muscular system. 3. Know the structure and function of the cardiovascular system. 4. Know the structure and function of the respiratory system.

3 U NIT C ONTENT 1. KNOW THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. Structure of the skeletal system: bones (skull, sternum, ribs, vertebral column, clavicle, scapula, Humerus, radius, ulna, pelvis, femur, tibia, fibula, patella). Function of the skeletal system: protection; movement; shape; support; blood production. Joints: classifications (fixed, slightly moveable, freely moveable/synovial joints); joint structure; synovial joints range of movement. Movement: flexion; extension; adduction; abduction; rotation; circumduction; examples from relevant sporting movements e.g. the shoulder and elbow joints during an overarm tennis service. 2. KNOW THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM. Major muscles: triceps; biceps; quadriceps; hamstrings; deltoids; gluteus maximus; gastrocnemius; abdominals; obliques; pectorals; trapezius; erector spinae; location. Types of muscles: voluntary (skeletal); involuntary (smooth); heart (cardiac); structure; function. Muscle movements: antagonistic pairs; types of contraction (concentric, eccentric, isometric). 4. KNOW THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Structure of the respiratory system: epiglottis; trachea; bronchus; bronchioles; alveoli; diaphragm; intercostal muscles. Function of the respiratory system: mechanics of breathing (inspiration and expiration); gaseous exchange (alveoli, diffusion of oxygen into the blood, carbon dioxide out of the blood and into the lungs). 3. KNOW THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. Structure of the cardiovascular system: atria; ventricles; septum; tricuspid valve; bicuspid valve; semi-lunar valves; main blood vessels leading into and out of the heart (aorta, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery and vena cavae); blood vessels (structure and function); arteries; arterioles; capillaries; veins and venuoles. Function of the cardiovascular system: blood flow through the heart and to the body and lungs; taking up oxygen and ‘unloading’ carbon dioxide; thermoregulation (vasodilation and vasoconstriction of vessels).

4 A SSESSMENT & G RADING C RITERIA To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to: To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to: P1 - describe the structure and function of the skeletal system. P2 - describe the different types of joint and the movements allowed at each. M1 - explain the movements occurring at two synovial joints during four different types of physical activity. P3 - identify the major muscles of the body. P4 - describe the different types of muscle and muscle movements. M2 - give examples of three different types of muscular contraction relating to three different types of physical Activity. D1 - analyse the musculoskeletal actions occurring at four synovial joints during four different types of physical activity. P5 - describe the structure and function of the cardiovascular system. P6 - describe the structure and function of the respiratory system. M3 - explain how the cardiovascular and respiratory systems work together to supply the body with oxygen. D2 - evaluate how the cardiovascular system and respiratory system work together to supply the body with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.

5 A SSIGNMENT B RIEF O NE Assignment Title:Skeletal System Start Date: Deadline Date: Submission Date: Assessor: The Purpose of this assignment is to: Enable learners to understand the structure and function of the skeletal system. Scenario: As a trainee physiotherapist with team GB at the London 2012 Olympic Games, you are helping your line manager to ensure that the athletes are always at their peak of physical fitness. Team GB’s manager is concerned that some of the younger athletes are not fully aware of the importance of healthy body systems. Therefore, it is your responsibility to produce a series of information leaflets that highlight each of the body systems that can be available in and around team GB’s headquarters and throughout their Olympic village. Task 1: Create a labelled poster of the 14 major bones in the skeleton. The five functions of the skeleton must also be identified and explained, they include protection, movement, shape, support and blood production. This provides evidence for P1 Task 2: Create a series of posters that describes the different types of joints (fixed, slightly moveable and synovial) and then the movements that can occur at each of the synovial joints (gliding, ball and socket, condyloid, saddle, hinge and pivot). You should use Olympic physical activities to highlight each synovial joint. You must also cover all types of movement (flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation and circumduction). This provides evidence for P2 Task 3: Choose four different physical activities from the Olympic Games (a racket sport, a team sport, an athletic event and a gymnastic event). For each physical activity you must explain the movements occurring at two synovial joints. You must present this information on four posters. This provides evidence for M1 This brief has been verified as being fit for purpose. Assessor: Signature:Date: Internal Verifier:Mrs Heather Blackburn Signature:Date:

6 A SSIGNMENT B RIEF T WO Assignment Title:The Muscular System Start Date: Deadline Date: Submission Date: Assessor: The Purpose of this assignment is to: Enable learners to understand the structure and function of the muscular system. Scenario: The manager of Team GB was highly impressed with you skeletal information posters for the younger athletes. The manager is now interested in you producing a digital presentation that can be viewed on the TV’s within Team GB’s camp. The digital presentation must focus on the muscular system. Task 1: Create and design a digital presentation that highlights the 12 major muscles of the body. You should ensure that the front and back of the body is covered (P3). You will then describe the different types of muscles (cardiac, involuntary and voluntary) with examples of each, a microscopic diagram and relevant information relating to the different types. Finally you should describe how muscles create movement ( antagonistic pairs). You should also use labelled pictures/diagrams to support your text (P4). This provides evidence for P3 & P4 Task 2: Extend your digital presentation by giving examples on the three different types of muscular contractions (concentric, eccentric and isometric) and give an example of each contraction taking place in three different Olympic activities. Use pictures and diagrams to make your digital presentation visually interesting. This provides evidence for M2 Task 3: Using you knowledge from your previous tasks, you must now analyse the musculoskeletal actions occurring at four synovial joints during four different types of Olympic physical activities (a racket sport, a team sport, an athletic event and a gymnastic event). For each activity, analyse the movements occurring at four different synovial joints, for example, the shoulder, elbow, hips and knee joints. You must state the type of joint, movement at the joint, agonist muscle, type of muscle contraction and antagonist muscle. This provides evidence for D1 This brief has been verified as being fit for purpose. Assessor: Signature:Date: Internal Verifier:Mrs Heather Blackburn Signature:Date:

7 A SSIGNMENT B RIEF T HREE Assignment Title:The Cardiovascular System Start Date: Deadline Date: Submission Date: Assessor: The Purpose of this assignment is to: Enable learners to understand the structure and function of the cardiovascular system. Scenario: A healthy heart is of vital importance for all Olympians. As one of Team GB’s trainee physiotherapists your team manager would like you to produce an information leaflet which will be handed to all athletes to make them more aware of the importance of the cardiovascular system. Task 1: You must create a 6 page information leaflet that is visually interesting. It must highlight the structure and function of the cardiovascular system. It should be set out as follows: Title page; Introduction to the cardiovascular system and the purpose of your leaflet; Labelled diagram to show the structure of the cardiovascular system Labelled diagram to show structure and functions of the 5 main blood vessels Labelled diagram and description to show how the heart works as a double pump and how blood flows through the heart and to the body and lungs; Information on how the cardiovascular system is responsible for helping to control the body's temperature through thermoregulation. Check Learning outcome 3 for all the key terms This provides evidence for P5 This brief has been verified as being fit for purpose. Assessor: Signature:Date: Internal Verifier:Mrs Heather Blackburn Signature:Date:

8 A SSIGNMENT B RIEF F OUR Assignment Title:The Respiratory System Start Date: Deadline Date: Submission Date: Assessor: The Purpose of this assignment is to: Enable learners to understand the structure and function of the cardiovascular system. Scenario: Your final task is to produce a PowerPoint presentation that you will deliver to the younger Olympic athletes. Once this is complete it is hoped that the younger athletes will now be fully aware of the importance of their body systems. Your media forms thus far have been outstanding, good luck with the final piece of the jigsaw. Task 1: Produce a PowerPoint presentation which highlights the structure and function of the respiratory system. You must label a diagram of the respiratory system and give a very brief description of each component role. You must describe: the mechanics of breathing ( inspiration / expiration) and gaseous exchange in order to complete the presentation. (See learning outcome 4 for all key terms) This provides evidence for P6 Task 2: Explain how the cardiovascular and respiratory system work together to supply the body with oxygen. To do this you should imagine you are an oxygen molecule and explain the journey you take in and around the body until you reach your muscular destination. You must include all of the key terms from learning outcome 4 eg blood flows from an alevoli into the blood stream this shows a link between the 2 systems. This provides evidence for M3 Task 3: Evaluate how the cardiovascular system and respiratory system work together to supply the body with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. To do this you should write a report entitled ‘Journey of Gases’. Imagine you start off as an oxygen molecule, comment on how you leave the atmosphere and enter the body and the journey you take until you re-join the atmosphere as a carbon dioxide molecule. This provides evidence for D2 This brief has been verified as being fit for purpose. Assessor: Signature:Date: Internal Verifier:Mrs Heather Blackburn Signature:Date:

9 A SSESSMENT & G RADING C RITERIA A CHIEVED Qualification:BTEC Level 2 Diploma In SportYear: Unit: Unit 4: Anatomy & Physiology For Sport Learner Name: Date that grading criteria was achieved PASSMERITDISTINCTION P1 P2M1 P3 P4M2D1 P5 P6M3D2 Strengths Areas For Improvements Learner Comment Assessor Signature:Date Unit Completed: Learners Signature:


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