Presentation on theme: "Bones, Muscles, Blood, and Lungs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Bones, Muscles, Blood, and Lungs In this lesson, you will Learn About…How the skeletal and muscular systems support and move your body.How the circulatory system moves blood throughout your body.How the respiratory system works to help you breathe.
2 Bones, Muscles, Blood, and Lungs The Vocabulary terms in this lesson are:Skeletal systemJointsMuscular systemCirculatory systemHeartBlood pressureRespiratory systemLungsDiaphragmClick each term to display its definition.
3 The Skeletal SystemThe skeletal system is a framework of bones and the tissues that connect the bones.You may visit the following link to explain body systems:
4 BonesYour bones support your body and protect its soft parts from injury.With the help of your muscles, bones also allow you to stand and move.Bones are hard on the outside and have a spongy tissue inside that produces blood cells.
5 Joints There are three different types of joints: Pivot joint - consists of the end of one bone rotating inside a ring formed by another bone.Hinge joint - moves in only one direction, much like a door hinge.Ball-and-socket joint - consists of a round end of one bone moving inside the cup-shaped socket of another bone.
6 The Skeletal System Skull Clavicle (collar bone) Rib cage HumerusPivot joint (neck)RadiusUlnaVertebrae (Spine)PelvisHinge joint (elbow)FemurPatella (knee cap)TibiaBall-and-socket joint (hip)Fibula
7 The Muscular SystemThe muscular system is made up of muscles that move bones, pump blood, and move food through the stomach and intestines, among other jobs.There are three types of muscles:Skeletal – found in places such as the arms and back; called voluntary muscles because a person can control them.Cardiac – found only in the heart; called involuntary muscles because they work without a person’s controlling them.Smooth – found in places such as those in the stomach; called involuntary muscles because they work without a person’s controlling them.
8 The Muscular System (cont’d.) DeltoidPectoralBicepsTricepsBiceps(Skeletal muscle)AbdominalSartoriusQuadricepsHeart(cardiac muscle)Muscles move bones, pump blood, and move food through the digestive system.Stomach(smooth muscle)
9 The Circulatory System The circulatory system helps blood move to and from the tissues of the body to:Deliver oxygen, food, and other material to cells.Remove wastes from cells.
10 The Circulatory System (cont’d.) LungsBPulmonary VeinPulmonary arteryArteriesVeinsExplain the circulatory system using the following points:A. Oxygen-poor blood flows into the pulmonary arteries, which carry it to the lungs. There, the blood picks up more oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.B. The pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs back to the heart, where it is pumped into arteries that carry it to all parts of the body.C. As blood travels through tiny capillaries, it releases oxygen into the body’s cells and picks up carbon dioxide. It then flows into veins, which carry it back to the heart.HeartCCapillaries
11 The Work of the HeartThe heart pushes blood through the blood vessels, the tubes that carry blood throughout the body.There are three types of blood vessels:Arteries - carry blood away from the heartVeins - return blood to the heartCapillaries – tiny blood vessels that connect arteries and veins and provide blood directly to cells.
12 Blood PressureBlood pressure is greatest when the heart contracts to push out blood.It is lowest between heartbeats, when the heart relaxes.
13 Parts of the BloodBlood contains both liquid parts (plasma) and solid parts (cells).Plasma – transports blood cells and dissolved food.Red blood cells – carry oxygen to all other cells of the body and carry away some waste products.White blood cells – help destroy disease-causing germs that enter the body.Platelets – help the blood to clot.
14 Blood TypesBlood is classified by the type of red blood cells a person has.There are four main blood types: A, B, AB, and O.Mixing of some blood types can have serious side effects when a person receives blood from someone else.
15 Blood Types (cont’d.)Blood may contain an Rh factor. It is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative.An Rh-positive person can receive blood from both an Rh-positive and an Rh-negative person.An Rh-negative person can receive blood only from an Rh-negative person.
16 The Respiratory System The respiratory system is divided into:Upper Respiratory System – Air comes into the body through the nose or mouth; it then enters the trachea, or windpipe.Lower Respiratory System – The trachea divides into two branches called bronchi that carry air into the lungs. The bronchi divide into smaller and smaller branches and end in structures called alveoli.
17 The Respiratory System Nose and mouthUpper Respiratory SystemTracheaBronchiLower Respiratory SystemLungsExplain the respiratory system using the following points:Upper respiratory system – Air comes into the body here, through the nose or mouth; it enters the trachea, or windpipe.Lower respiratory system – The trachea divides into two branches, called bronchi, that carry air to the lungs. The bronchi divide into smaller and smaller tubes, the smallest of which end in structures called alveoli,Alveoli – These tiny sacs are covered in a network of capillaries. Oxygen passes through the alveoli into the blood inside the capillaries. At the same time, carbon dioxide moves out of the blood into the alveoli.Alveoli
18 How You Breathe Breathing begins with the diaphragm. When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts. When you breathe out, the diaphragm expands.Squeezing the bottle forces air out. This is similar to what happens when you breathe out. A relaxed diaphragm moves upward and squeezes air out of your lungs.Letting the bottle return to its original shape lets air rush in. this is similar to what happens when you breathe in. A tightened diaphragm moves downward and allows the lungs to fill with air.Explain the working of the respiratory system with the help of the figure.
19 Reviewing Terms and Facts _________ are places where one bone meets another. The three major joint types are _________, ________, and _____________.Jointspivothingeball-and-socketClick to show the correct answer.
20 Reviewing Terms and Facts Which body system carries food and oxygen to cells?The circulatory system carries food and oxygen to cells and removes wastes from cells.Click to show the correct answer.
21 Reviewing Terms and Facts What role does the skeletal system play in your body?The skeletal system is a framework of bones and tissues that connect the bones. The bones support the body and protect its soft parts from injury. With the help of muscles, they also allow the body to stand and move.Click to show the correct answer.
22 Vocabulary ReviewThe skeletal system is a framework of bones and the tissues that connect the bones.Click the slide to go back to the Vocabulary Review home page.
23 Vocabulary Review Joints are places where one bone meets another. Click the slide to go back to the Vocabulary Review home page.
24 Vocabulary ReviewThe muscular system is made up of all the muscles in your body.Click the slide to go back to the Vocabulary Review home page.
25 Vocabulary ReviewThe circulatory system enables the body to transport, or move, materials from one place to another.Click the slide to go back to the Vocabulary Review home page.
26 Vocabulary ReviewThe heart is the muscle that acts as the pump for the circulatory system.Click the slide to go back to the Vocabulary Review home page.
27 Vocabulary ReviewBlood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the blood vessels.Click the slide to go back to the Vocabulary Review home page.
28 Vocabulary Review The respiratory system enables you to breathe. Click the slide to go back to the Vocabulary Review home page.
29 Vocabulary ReviewThe lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system.Click the slide to go back to the Vocabulary Review home page.
30 Vocabulary ReviewThe diaphragm is a large muscle at the bottom of the chest.Click the slide to go back to the Vocabulary Review home page.