Presentation on theme: "Quick Equation review. Double displacement During a double replacement or metathesis reaction, two new combinations of ions are produced. We identify."— Presentation transcript:
Quick Equation review
Double displacement During a double replacement or metathesis reaction, two new combinations of ions are produced. We identify four reasons why these NEW combinations are more stable than the original combos. a precipitate forms memorize your solubility rules a gas forms which leaves the system memorize the list of gases that form (don’t forget that H 2 CO 3 forms water and CO 2, H 2SO3 forms water and SO 2 gas, NH4OH forms NH3 gas and H2O) a weak electrolyte forms memorize the strong acid list so you will recognize weak acids, also H2O and NH4OH a complex ion forms learn the structure of complex ions and common ligands
Solubility rules Always Always Soluble compounds with alkali metal ions Alkali metals, NH4+, NO3–, C2H3O2–, ClO3– & ClO4– Usually Soluble Cl–, Br–, I– [except “AP/H”... Ag+, Pb2+, Hg22+] SO42– [except “CBS”: Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+ & “PBS”: Pb2+] Usually NOT Soluble O2–, OH– [except alkali and “CBS” Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+ ] Never Soluble CO32–, SO32–, S2–, PO43– [except NH4+ & alkali] NOTE: some of these insoluble compounds WILL dissolve in acid solutions because of gas formation... useful idea!
Complex Ions Complex Ions: Charged cations (of transition metals and aluminum) that attract ligands which are usually lewis bases (molecules with lone electrons pairs such as NH3, H2O, Cl-, F-, Br-, OH-, CN-). Look for the words “excess” or “concentrated” Adding an acid to a complex ion breaks it up, or to an ammine complex, ammonia is formed Adding HCl to a silver complex, the precipitate AgCl forms The number of ligands attached (known as coordinate number) is usually 2, 4 or 6. Generally it is twice the charge of the cation.
i A solution of diammine silver I chloride is treated with dilute nitric acid
What is the driving force?
Example Complex ion A solution of ammonium thiocyanate is added to a solution of iron III chloride
What type of bond is formed between the ligand and the central transition metal in the complexes ?
Concentrated ammonia solution is added to excess solution of copper II nitrate
Excess nitric acid solution is added to a solution of tetraaminecopper II sulfate
Single Replacement Sodium plus water Chlorine gas is bubbled into a solution of potassium iodide
Tricky redox masquerading as Single Replacement Hydrogen reacts with a hot metal oxide yields elemental metal and water Chlorine gas reacts with dilute sodium hydroxide to produce sodium hypochlorite, sodium chloride and water Copper reacts with dilute nitric acid Copper reacts with concentrated nitric acid
Anhydrides Water is a reactant Nonmetal oxides (acidic anhydrides) plus water yield acids (keep the oxidation number of the nonmetal the same!) Metal oxides (basic anhydrides) plus water yields bases
Combustion Reaction with O2 Hydrocarbons + O2 CO2 and H2O Ammonia limited oxygen NO and water Excess oxygen NO2 and water Nonmetallic hydrides + O2 nonmetallic oxides and water Nonmetallic sulfides + O2 nonmetal oxides and sulfur dioxide
Organic Basics Alkane- Straight chain hydrocarbons C n H 2n+2 names end in –ane 1C- meth 6C- hex 2C- eth 7C- hept 3C- prop 8C- oct 4C- but 9C- non 5C- pent 10C- dec
Isomers Organic compounds with the same chemical formula and different structural formulas