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How to predict a Product. Synthesis Acid anhydride + water acid Base anhydride + water base Nonmetallic oxide is acid anhydride Metallic oxide is base.

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Presentation on theme: "How to predict a Product. Synthesis Acid anhydride + water acid Base anhydride + water base Nonmetallic oxide is acid anhydride Metallic oxide is base."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to predict a Product

2 Synthesis Acid anhydride + water acid Base anhydride + water base Nonmetallic oxide is acid anhydride Metallic oxide is base anhydride

3 Decomposition Electrolysis: splits the molecule Heating: most common

4 Heat hydroxides Produce the oxide and water Exceptions: group 1 hydroxides

5 Heat carbonates Produce oxide and CO 2 Exceptions: group 1 carbonates

6 Heat sulfates Produce oxide and sulfur trioxide Exceptions: groups 1 and 2

7 Heat nitrates Produce oxide, oxygen, and nitrogen dioxide Exceptions: group I nitrates produce nitrites and oxygen

8 Heat chlorates All produce the chloride and oxygen gas

9 Heat oxides Only for silver, mercury, platinum, palladium, and gold Produce metal and oxygen gas

10 Single replacement Free metal must be higher on the reactivity series Free nonmetal must be higher on the nonmetal reactivity series

11 Activity Series of the Metals Li Rb K Ba Sr Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb H2 Sb Bi Cu Hg Ag Pt Au

12 Activity Series of the Nonmetals F2 Cl2 Br2 I2

13 Double replacement Both conditions must occur Both reactants must be soluble in water Must be evidence of a chemical reaction Color change Precipitate Bubbles

14 Solubility Rules 1. All nitrates, acetates, and chlorates are soluble. 2. All chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble except for Ag +, Hg 2 2+, and Pb All sulfates are soluble except for Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Hg 2 2+, Pb 2+, and Ag + 4. All carbonates, chromates, sulfites, and phosphates are insoluble except those of group I and NH All hydroxides are insoluble except for those of group I and lower II 6. All sulfides except those of the I and II groups are insoluble 7. Salts containing a group I metal or the ammonium ion are soluble

15 Complete combustion Always produces carbon dioxide and water

16 Decomposition problems what if you heat: Calcium oxide Aluminum hydroxide Sodium chlorate Sodium sulfate Sodium nitrate Calcium nitrate Magnesium carbonate Magnesium sulfate

17 answers Calcium oxide: nothing Aluminum hydroxide aluminum oxide and water Sodium chlorate sodium chloride and oxygen Sodium sulfate nothing Sodium nitrate sodium nitrite and oxygen Calcium nitrate calcium oxide, O 2, NO 2 Magnesium carbonate MgO and CO 2 Magnesium sulfate nothing


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