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How to predict a Product

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Presentation on theme: "How to predict a Product"— Presentation transcript:

1 How to predict a Product

2 Synthesis Acid anhydride + water  acid Base anhydride + water  base
Nonmetallic oxide is acid anhydride Metallic oxide is base anhydride

3 Decomposition Electrolysis: splits the molecule Heating: most common

4 Heat hydroxides Produce the oxide and water
Exceptions: group 1 hydroxides

5 Heat carbonates Produce oxide and CO2 Exceptions: group 1 carbonates

6 Heat sulfates Produce oxide and sulfur trioxide
Exceptions: groups 1 and 2

7 Heat nitrates Produce oxide, oxygen, and nitrogen dioxide
Exceptions: group I nitrates produce nitrites and oxygen

8 Heat chlorates All produce the chloride and oxygen gas

9 Heat oxides Only for silver, mercury, platinum, palladium, and gold
Produce metal and oxygen gas

10 Single replacement Free metal must be higher on the reactivity series
Free nonmetal must be higher on the nonmetal reactivity series

11 Activity Series of the Metals
Li Rb K Ba Sr Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb H2 Sb Bi Cu Hg Ag Pt Au

12 Activity Series of the Nonmetals
Cl2 Br2 I2

13 Double replacement Both conditions must occur
Both reactants must be soluble in water Must be evidence of a chemical reaction Color change Precipitate Bubbles

14 Solubility Rules 1. All nitrates, acetates, and chlorates are soluble.
2. All chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble except for Ag+, Hg22+, and Pb 2+ 3. All sulfates are soluble except for Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Hg22+, Pb2+, and Ag+ 4. All carbonates, chromates, sulfites, and phosphates are insoluble except those of group I and NH4+ 5. All hydroxides are insoluble except for those of group I and lower II 6. All sulfides except those of the I and II groups are insoluble 7. Salts containing a group I metal or the ammonium ion are soluble

15 Complete combustion Always produces carbon dioxide and water

16 Decomposition problems what if you heat:
Calcium oxide Aluminum hydroxide Sodium chlorate Sodium sulfate Sodium nitrate Calcium nitrate Magnesium carbonate Magnesium sulfate

17 answers Calcium oxide: nothing
Aluminum hydroxide aluminum oxide and water Sodium chlorate sodium chloride and oxygen Sodium sulfate nothing Sodium nitrate sodium nitrite and oxygen Calcium nitrate calcium oxide, O2 , NO2 Magnesium carbonate MgO and CO2 Magnesium sulfate nothing

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