Presentation on theme: "Single Replacement A single element replaces an element in a compound. One element is oxidized while one is reduced."— Presentation transcript:
Single Replacement A single element replaces an element in a compound. One element is oxidized while one is reduced.
Active metals replace less active metals or hydrogen from their compounds in aqueous solution. – Helps to write water as HOH – A piece of lithium is added to water 2Li + 2HOH 2Li + 2OH + H – All rxns work so do not worry about reactivity
Odd Balls Hydrogen reacts with a hot metallic oxide to produce elemental metal and water. – Hydrogen gas is passed over hot copper(II) oxide. H + CuO Cu +HOH Chlorine gas reacts with dilute sodium hydroxide to produce sodium hypochlorite, sodium chloride, and water. A metal sulfide reacts with oxygen to produce a metallic oxide and sulfur dioxide.
More Odd Balls Copper reacts with dilute nitric acid to produce copper(II) nitrate, nitrogen monoxide, and water. Copper reacts with concentrated nitric acid to produce copper (II) nitrate, nitrogen dioxide, and water. Copper reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid to produce copper(II) sulfate, sulfur dioxide, and water.
Anhydrides Water is a reactant in each reactant.
Rxns to Know Nonmetallic oxides plus water yields acids – Carbon dioxide is bubbled into water CO + HOH HCO Metallic oxides plus water yield bases. – Solid sodium oxide is added to water Na) + HOH Na + OH Metallic hydrides (ionic) plus water yield metallic hydroxides and hydrogen gas. – Solid sodium hydride is added to water NaH + HOH Na + OH+ H
More Rxns Phosphorus halides react with water to produce an acid of phosphorus (ous or ic acid) and a hydrohalic acid. Oxidation # of P stays the same. – Phosphorus tribromide is added to water. PBr + 3 HOH HPO + 3 H + 3 Br Group 1 and II nitrides react with water to produce the metallic hydroxide and ammonia – Solid magnesium nitride is added to water MgN + 6 HOH 3 Mg(OH) +2NH
Even More Rxns Amines react with water to produce alkyammonium ions and hydroxide ions – Methylamine is bubbled into distilled water. CHNH + HOH CHNH + OH