Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Chemical Reactions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 11 Chemical Reactions 11.1 Describing Chemical Reactions11.2 Types of Chemical Reactions11.3 Reactions in Aqueous SolutionsThe objective of this chapter is for you to identify a type of equation, predict the product from the reactants, and balance the final equation.
2 Writing Chemical Equations There are two parts to a chemical equationa. Reactants – those elements or compounds that will combine together to form new compounds or molecules. Always on the left side of the equation.b. Products – those new elements or compounds that form in a chemical reaction. Always on the right side of the equation.Reactants ProductThe arrow means “yields”
3 Word Equations:Consist of writing the names of the reactants on the left side of the yield sign and the products on the right side of the yield signIron + Oxygen Iron (III) oxide
4 Chemical Equations:Is a representation of a chemical reaction using the formulas of the reactants and products.Fe + O Fe2 O3+ Used to separate reactants and productsUsed for reversible reactions(s) Designates a solid(l) Designates a liquid(g) Designates a gas(aq) Designates an aqueous solution; the substance is dissolved in waterD Indicates heat is supplied to the reactionMnO2 A formula written above or below the yield sign indicates its use asa catalyst – ( a substance that speeds a reaction)
5 Skeleton Equation:Is a chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amounts of the reactants and productsBalanced Equation:Is a chemical equation in which each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element and mass is conserved. To balance the equation, whole numbers called coefficients are used on both sides of the equations to help balance the number of atoms in the reactants and product.The coefficient actually represents how many moles are present in the reactant and product that are necessary to run the reaction.Link
6 Steps for writing Chemical Equations: 1. Write a skeleton equation2. Use subscripts to balance charges in the product3. Use coefficients to balance atoms on each side of the equationTry Potassium + Oxygen Potassium OxideK + O K+1O+2K + O K2O4K + O K2ONow Try:P + O P4O10AgNO3 + Cu Ag + Cu(NO3)2
7 Law of the Conservation of Mass: The mass of the atoms present in the reactants must equal the mass of the atoms present in the product
8 11.2 Types of Chemical Reactions The following is a list of the four major types of reactionsBy knowing the type of reaction, the products can be predicted.Composition ReactionDecomposition ReactionReplacement ReactionCombustion
9 Combination Reaction: Also called a Synthesis Reaction, occurs when two or more substances combine to form a more complex substance.Composition reactions have the general form;A + X AXExamples:Iron and Sulfur combine to form Iron(II) SulfideFe + S FeSMagnesium and Oxygen gas form Magnesium Oxide2Mg + O MgOWater and Sulfur TrioxideH2O + SO H2SO4
10 Two Special Combination Reactions: Metal Oxide + Water Hydroxides (which are bases)Na2O + H2O NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide)Try, CaO + H2O ?2. Nonmetal oxide + Water AcidsSO3 + H2O H2SO3 (Sulfurous Acid)Try, Cl2O5 + H2O ?Don’t remember your acids and bases then review chapter 9!
11 Decomposition Reaction: Reactions that are in reverse to decomposition reactions. Here one substance breaks down to form two or more simpler substances.Decomposition reactions have the general form;AX A + XExamples:Water decomposes, yielding hydrogen and oxygen2H2O H2(g) + O2(g)Potassium Chlorate decomposes, yielding potassium chloride and oxygen2KClO KCl + 3O2(g)Mercury(II) Oxide decomposes to form metallic mercury and oxygen2HgO Hg(l) + O2(g)
12 There are six types of decomposition reactions: Metallic carbonates, when heated, form metallic oxides and carbon dioxide CaCO CaO + CO2(g)Many metallic hydroxides, when heated, decompose into metallic oxides and water. Ca(OH) CaO + H2O(g)Metallic chlorates, when heated, decompose into metallic chlorides and oxygen. 2KClO KCl + 3O2(g)Some acids, when heated, decompose into nonmetallic oxides and water H2CO H2O + CO2(g)Some oxides, when heated, decompose though most are stable.2HgO Hg + O2(g)6. Some decomposition reactions are produced by an electric current2H2O (electricity) H2(g) + O2(g)
13 OR Y + BX BY + X Replacement Reaction: Occur when one substance is replaced in its compound by another substance.Replacement reactions have the general form;Single Replacement- A + BX AX + BORY + BX BY + XDouble Replacement – AY + BX AX BYThere are four specific types of replacement reactions:Replacement of Hydrogen in water by metalsReplacement of a metal in a compound by a more active metalReplacement of Hydrogen in acids by metalsReplacement of Halogens
14 Reactivity of the elements determine if the reactions will occur. One atom must be more reactive then the element that is beingreplaced in the equation.
15 Replacement of Hydrogen in water by metals: The very active metals such as potassium, calcium, and sodium, react vigorously with water. They replace half the hydrogen to form metallic hydroxides. At elevated temperatures less active metals such as magnesium, zinc, and iron react with steam to replace hydrogen. Because of the high temperature involved, oxides rather than hydroxides are formed. Metals less active than iron do not react measurably with water.Example: Ca + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2(g)
16 Replacement of a metal in a compound by a more active metal: A more reactive metal replaces the less reactive metal in a compoundIt is important to understand the periodic trends for the reactivity of metalsExample: Zn + CuSO ZnSO Cu(s)
17 Replacement of Hydrogen in acids by metals: Many metals react with certain acids to replace the hydrogen in the acid to form a metallic compound. Metals from Li to Na willReplace hydrogen from water and acids. Metals from Mg to PbWill replace hydrogen from acids only.Example: Zn + H2SO ZnSO4 + H2(g)
18 Replacement of Halogens: Replacement of a halogen with another halogen depends on the reactivity of the two halogens involved. A more reactive halogen always replaces a less active halogen.Cl KBr KCl + Br2How does the reactivity of the halogens progress?
19 Double Replacement Reaction: An exchange of positive ions between two compounds. There are generally three rules that govern this type of reaction. These reactions are generally ionic in nature and take placein an aqueous solution. To occur, one of the products must bea. An insoluble precipitate b. A gas c. A molecular compoundDouble Replacement – AY + BX AX BYOne of the products is only slightly soluble and precipitates from solution. Na2S + Cd(NO3)2(aq) CdS NaNO3(aq)One of the products is a gas2NaCN(aq) + H2SO4(aq) HCN(g) + Na2SO4(aq)3. One product is a molecular compound such as waterCa(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) H2O(l)
20 Combustion Reaction:Occurs when an element or compound reacts with oxygen, often producing energy in the form of light and heat. The reaction involves oxygen as a reactant while the other reactant is often a hydrocarbon. In this case the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon produces carbon dioxide and water.2C8H18(l) O2(g) CO2(g) H2O(l)Other elements can be combusted with oxygen and look much like a combination reaction2Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s)A hydrocarbon is a compound composed only of hydrogen and carbonMany are used as fossil fuels – methane, propane, butane, and octane
21 11.3 Reactions in Aqueous Solution: Net Ionic Reactions –The earth is 70% waterYour body is 66% waterMany important chemical reaction take place in water (an aqueous solution) causing the compounds to separate into ionsExample: When sodium chloride and silver nitrate are placed in solution, the ions dissociate. You can use these ions to write a complete ionic equation.Complete ionic equation – an equation that shows dissolved ionic compounds as dissociated ions.Ag+(aq)+NO3-(aq)+Na+(aq)+ Cl-(aq) AgCl(s)+ Na+(aq)+NO-3(aq)
22 Ag+(aq)+NO3-(aq)+Na+(aq)+ Cl-(aq) AgCl(s)+ Na+(aq)+NO-3(aq) Note that the sodium and nitrate ion are unchanged, the equation can be simplified by eliminating these ions because they do not participate in the reactionAg+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s)This is called the net ionic reaction – an equation that shows only the particles involved in the chemical changeSpectator Ions – an ion that appears on both sides of an equation that is not directly involved in the reaction.
23 Soluble Most are Insoluble Predicting the Formation of Precipitate: You can predict the formation of a precipitate by using the general rules for solubility of ionic compounds.Salts of alkali metals andAmmoniaSolubleNitrate salts and chlorate saltsSulfate salts, except compounds with Pb(II), Ag(I), Hg(II), Ba+2, Sr+2, Ca +2Chloride salts, except compounds with Ag+, Pb+2, Hg+2Carbonates, phosphates, chromates, sulfides, hydroxidesMost are Insoluble