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Types Of Chemical Reactions. Objective Distinguish between the 5 different types of reactions Predict the products of a reaction Predict the physical.

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Presentation on theme: "Types Of Chemical Reactions. Objective Distinguish between the 5 different types of reactions Predict the products of a reaction Predict the physical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types Of Chemical Reactions

2 Objective Distinguish between the 5 different types of reactions Predict the products of a reaction Predict the physical states of products

3 5 Types of Reactions Composition Decomposition Single Replacement Double Replacement Combustion

4 Composition Reactions When two or more substances react to form a single product 2 reactants → 1 product A + X → AX 2H 2 + O 2 → MgO + CO 2 → 2H 2 O MgCO 3

5 Decomposition Occurs when a compound is broken down into simpler substances Single reactant yields two or more products (1 reactant → 2 products) forms a common gas as a product; CO 2, O 2, SO 2, H 2 O

6 Decomposition Examples AX → A+ X 2HgO → CaCO 3 → 2Hg + O 2 CaO + CO 2

7 Single Replacement One substance replaces another A metal replaces a metal, if it is more active A non-metal replaces a non-metal, if it is more active

8 Single Replacement Examples A and B are metals;X and Y are non-metals A + BX → AX + B OR Y + BX → BY + X Mg + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 → Cl KBr → Mg (NO 3 ) 2 + Zn 2 KCl + Br 2

9 Double Replacement An exchange of partners The metal replaces the metal or the non-metal replaces the non-metal  AX + BY → AY + BX Na 2 S + Cd(NO 3 ) 2 → BaCl 2 + K 2 CO 3 → 2NaNO 3 + CdS BaCO 3 + 2KCl

10 Combustion An element or compound reacts with oxygen Usually produces heat → Exothermic Combustion of a hydrocarbon always produces carbon dioxide and water 2 Mg + O 2 → 2 CH 3 OH + 3 O 2 → 2 MgO + heat 2 CO H heat

11 Composition Two elements or compounds combine to form a single substance A + X → Fe + S → H 2 O + SO 3 → AX FeS H 2 SO 4

12 5 Kinds of Decomposition Reactions Metallic Carbonates Metallic Hydroxides Metallic Chlorates Oxy Acids Oxides

13 Metallic Carbonates  CaCO 3 →  Metal oxide and carbon dioxide formed CaO + CO 2

14 Metallic Hydroxides Many metallic hydroxides (OH-), when heated, decompose into metallic oxides and water. Ca(OH) 2 → Metal oxide and water formed Exceptions to the rule: NaOH and KOH CaO + H 2 0

15 Metallic Chlorates (ClO 3 - ), when heated, decompose into metallic chlorides and oxygen 2KClO 3 → metal chloride and oxygen formed 2KCl + 3O 2

16 Oxy Acids Some oxy acids, when heated, decompose into nonmetallic oxides and water Seltzer Water  H 2 CO 3 → Acid Rain  H 2 SO 3 → CO 2 + H 2 O SO 2 + H 2 O

17 Oxides Some oxides, when heated, decompose. 2HgO → 2Pb O 2 → 2Hg + O 2 2PbO + O 2

18 4 Kinds of Single Replacement Reactions Metal w/ more active metal Hydrogen in acids w/ more active metal Hydrogen in water w/ by most active metals Halogen w/ more active halogen

19 Metal w/ more active Metal Replacement of a metal in a compound by a more active metal (PCS Mazintl) Zn + CuSO 4 → Zinc replaces the copper, therefore zinc is more active ZnSO 4 + Cu (s)

20 P.C.S. Mazintl Activity of Halogens P potassium Fluorine C calcium Chlorine S sodium Bromine M magnesium Iodine a aluminum z zinc i iron n nickel t tin l lead HYDROGEN Copper Mercury Silver More Active

21 Hydrogen in acids w/ more active metals Replacement of hydrogen, in acids, by metals more active than hydrogen (PCS Mazintl) Zn + H 2 SO 4 → The corresponding metallic compound and hydrogen gas are formed Zn SO 4 + H 2 (g)

22 P.C.S. Mazintl Activity of Halogens P potassium Fluorine C calcium Chlorine S sodium Bromine M magnesium Iodine a aluminum z zinc i iron n nickel t tin l lead HYDROGEN Copper Mercury Silver More Active

23 Hydrogen in water w/ most active metals Replacement of hydrogen, in water, by the most active metals. Which Metals?  All Group I and some of Group II Ca + 2 H 2 O → A hydroxide and hydrogen gas are formed Ca(OH) 2 + H 2 (g)

24 Halogen w/ more active halogen Replacement of a halogen by a more active halogen Cl KBr → Br KI → MgBr 2 + I 2 → The corresponding metallic compound and elemental halogen are formed 2 KCl + Br 2 2 KBr + I 2 no reaction because Br is more active than I, so I will not replace Br

25 P.C.S. Mazintl Activity of Halogens P potassium Fluorine C calcium Chlorine S sodium Bromine M magnesium Iodine a aluminum z zinc i iron n nickel t tin l lead HYDROGEN Copper Mercury Silver More Active

26 Activity Series of the elements A + BX → AX + B If A replaces B, then A is more active than B If an element is above another element on the chart, then it is more active, and will replace the lower positioned element All metals above hydrogen displace hydrogen from hydrochloric acid or dilute sulfuric acid.

27 P.C.S. Mazintl Activity of Halogens P potassium Fluorine C calcium Chlorine S sodium Bromine M magnesium Iodine a aluminum z zinc i iron n nickel t tin l lead HYDROGEN Copper Mercury Silver More Active

28 Example Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq)→

29 P.C.S. Mazintl Activity of Halogens P potassium Fluorine C calcium Chlorine S sodium Bromine M magnesium Iodine a aluminum z zinc i iron n nickel t tin l lead HYDROGEN Copper Mercury Silver More Active

30 Example Zn (s) + CuSO 4 (aq)→ Mg (s) + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) → ZnSO 4 (aq) + Cu (s) Mg (NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Zn (s)

31 Double Replacement AX + BY → AY + BX usually takes place in a solution of water 2 compounds → 2 different compounds  1 of these will not be soluble in water In order for you to know if the reaction has occurred, a solid or gas must form 1 product will typically be: solid: precipitate gas: CO 2 SO 2 NH 3

32 Solubility Rules for Double Dis(RE)placement Reactions How to determine which product is the precipitate Na + K+K+ NH 4 + NO 3 - [ Will always be soluble in water. Tells you what won’t precipitate, so assume the other one will

33 Examples Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + KI (aq) → PbI 2 (s) + 2 KNO 3 (aq)

34 Examples CaCO HCl → NaOH (aq) + KI (aq) → → CaCl 2 + H 2 CO 3 H 2 O + CO 2 NaI (aq) + KOH (aq) no reaction because both products are soluble (aq)

35 Writing Molecular, Complete Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations (7.7 Tro) Molecular Equations: an equation showing the complete neutral formulas for every compound in the reaction. AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl (aq)→ AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq)

36 Complete Ionic Equations equations that show reactants and products as they are actually present in solution. Ionic compounds dissociate (dissolve) in water, so they are written as individual ions…if the compound is soluble…check your solubility rules

37 Complete Ionic Equation of: AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq)

38 Spectator Ions: ions in solution that appear unchanged on both sides of the equation

39 Net Ionic Equation: equations which show only the species that actually participate in the reaction Spectator ions are omitted from the net ionic equation

40 Net Ionic Equation for: Ag + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) → AgCl(s) + Na + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq)

41 Write the molecular, complete ionic and net ionic equations for lead (II) nitrate reacts with lithium chloride

42 Write the molecular, complete ionic and net ionic equations for Hydrobromic acid reacts with calcium hydroxide

43 END


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