2General Properties of Aqueous Solutions An aqueous solution is a homogeneous mixture of water, the solvent, and one or more other compounds, the solutes.Solutes are the chemicals that dissolve in the water to form the solution.When a solute produces an aqueous solution that conducts electricity, it is called an electrolyte. All soluble ionic compounds are electrolytes.When a solute produces an aqueous solution that does not conduct electricity, it is called a nonelectrolyte. Many - but not all ! - organic compounds are nonelectrolytes.
3General Properties of Aqueous Solutions Water is a polar molecule and so is a polar solvent. As such, it dissolves polar molecules and ionic compounds well.The force of attraction between the electropositive H of one water to the electronegative O of another water molecule is a strong dipole-dipole attraction called hydrogen bonding.
4NaCl exists in aqueous solution as Na+ and Cl-. What Happens When Ionic Compounds Dissolve in WaterWhen ionic compounds dissolve in water, they separate into their component ions.NaCl exists in aqueous solution as Na+ and Cl-.
5What Happens When Ionic Compounds Dissolve in Water The force of attraction between ions and the polar water molecule is called the ion-dipole attraction.
6What Happens When Nonelectrolytes Dissolve in Water Water is a poor conductor of electricity.When molecular compounds that are nonelectrolytes dissolve in water, they remain in molecular form. They do NOT separate into ions.This is why solutions of nonelectrolytes do not conduct electricity.Sugars and alcohols are nonelectrolytes.Water + methyl alcohol
7Predicting What Happens When Ionic Compounds Dissolve in Water Ionic compounds are strong electrolytes. Strong electrolytes dissociate completely into ions when they dissolve in water.KClO3 (aq) K+(aq) + ClO3-(aq)Ca(OH)2(aq) Ca2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)(NH4)3PO4(aq) 3NH4+(aq) + PO43-(aq)Al2(SO4)3(aq) 2Al3+(aq) + 3SO42-(aq)It is important to preserve the stoichiometry of the compound when showing the ions.
8Predicting What Happens When Molecular Compounds Dissolve in Water Some molecular compounds are strong electrolytes. The strong acids are molecular compounds that dissociate completely into ions when they dissolve in water.Strong acids will lose one acid hydrogen (proton):HCl(aq) H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)HNO3(aq) H+(aq) + NO3-(aq)H2SO4(aq) H+(aq) + HSO4-(aq) Note!!!HClO4(aq) H+(aq) + ClO4-(aq)
9What Happens When Molecular Compounds That Are Weak Electrolytes Dissolve in Water Weak electrolytes are molecular compounds, some of which dissociate into ions, but most of which remain as molecules when they dissolve in water.Acetic acid is a weak electrolyte (and a weak acid).HC2H3O2 (aq) H+(aq) + C2H3O2-(aq)99% 1% %Solutions of weak electrolytes contain both molecules AND ions! Since there are not many ions, these solutions are weak conductors of electricity.
10Weak versus Strong Weak electrolytes, weak acids, weak bases: These terms refer to electrical conductivity…NOT REACTIVITY!!!Ammonia is a weak base but a strong cleaner.Weak means produces few ions relative to the number of molecules one starts with. The tipoff in a chemical equation is the double arrow, which indicates an equilibrium between products and reactants:HC2H3O2 (aq) H+(aq) + C2H3O2-(aq)
11Weak versus Strong Molecular compounds that dissolve in water can be strong electrolytes (the 7 strong acids)HCl, HI, HBr, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO3, HClO4weak electrolytesweak acids such as acetic acid or citric acidweak bases such as ammonia or the aminesnonelectrolytessugars, alcohols
12Weak versus StrongIonic compounds that are soluble are strong electrolytes. Ionic compounds that are not very soluble are considered weak.BaSO4 is not very soluble in water. In Chem I, we treat it as a nonelectrolyte (in reality, it is a weak electrolyte).
13Metathesis Reactions aka Exchange Reactions or Double Replacement Reactions Metathesis reactions are reactions of the form: AX + BY AY + BXWhy can the exchange occur? Because, in general, AX and BY exist in solution as IONS:A+ + X- + B+ + Y -If either of the POSSIBLE new compounds AY or BX is:insoluble in water (a precipitate)a weak electrolytea gasthen the metathesis reaction will occur.
14Predicting Whether a Metathesis Reaction Occurs – Solubility Guidelines AX + BY AY + BXLet’s consider the first case in which this reaction occurs: the case where AY or BX is a precipitate.To predict if a product is a precipitate, you must know its solubility in water. You will be given these guidelines for the test:All chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble except those containing Ag+, Hg22+, or Pb2+.All fluorides except Group IIA and Pb2+.All sulfates are soluble except those containing Sr2+, Ba2+, Hg22+, or Pb2+.All compounds containing Group 1A metal cations or the ammonium ion are soluble in water.All common acetates, nitrates, chlorates and perchlorates are soluble.
15Unit 5 - Double Replacement Replacements Predicting Whether a Metathesis Reaction Occurs – Solubility GuidelinesAX + BY AY + BXMore guidelines that you will be given for the test:All carbonates (CO32-) and phosphates (PO43-) are INSOLUBLE except those containing Group 1A metal cations or the ammonium ion (NH4+).All sulfides (S2-) and hydroxides (OH-) are INSOLUBLE except those containing Group 1A metal cations, the ammonium ion, Ca2+, Sr2+, or Ba2+.
16Will this reaction occur? HCl + AgNO3 HNO3 + AgCl Predicting Whether a Metathesis Reaction Occurs – Solubility GuidelinesWill this reaction occur?HCl + AgNO3 HNO3 + AgClYes, AgCl is insoluble so it will form a precipitate.HCl + AgNO3 HNO3 + AgCl (s)