Presentation on theme: "Alina Alvarez IEEE Uruguay Section - TEP - St Petersburg 2 October, 2009."— Presentation transcript:
Alina Alvarez IEEE Uruguay Section - TEP - St Petersburg 2 October, 2009
METHODOLOGIES THAT WORKED 1. BEFORE THE 1960`s Behaviorism 2. AFTER THE 1960´s 3. KEY ISSUES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A TEP PROGRAM FOR NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH 4. METHODOLOGY AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE IS TREATED AT SENTENCE LEVEL KEY SKILLS ARE READING AND GRAMMAR STUDENTS BUILD ON TRANSLATION SKILLS ALMOST ALL THE TEACHING OCCURS IN L1 THERE IS LITTLE OR NON-SPOKEN COMMUNICATION IN L2 GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD
DIRECT METHOD ( end of XIX century) FAVORED TEACHER AND STUDENTS SPEAKING TOGETHER RELATED GRAMMATICAL FORMS TO OBJECTS AND PICTURES ONLY L2 WAS USED IN THE CLASSROOM INPUT STUDENTS RECEIVE = INTAKE THEY ABSORB
READING APROACH ( ) EMPHASIS WAS PUT ON: READING SKILLS READING COMPREHENSION IS THE ONLY LANGUAGE SKILL EMPHASIZED TRANSLATION IS RESPECTABLE CLASSROOM PROCEDURE
AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD (1940,1950, 1960) LANGUAGE LEARNING IS GOVERNED BY: - HABIT FORMATION - CONSTANT REPETITION OF CORRECT UTTERANCES SUPPORTED BY REINFORCEMENT. - MEMORIZATION Presentation Practice Production
COGNITIVE APPROACH - LANGUAGE IS VIEWED AS RULE ACQUISITION - I WANT TO MAKE MY OWN DECISIONS - I WANT TO EXPLORE AND DISCOVER HUMANISTIC APPROACH - MY FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS ARE SO IMPORTANT! - I WANT TO GROW IN SELF-AWARENESS AND IN UNDERSTANDING OTHERS - I WANT TO BE AN ACTIVE LEARNER COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH - COMMUNICATE TO OTHERS WHAT YOU THINK AND FEEL - ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN SOCIAL AND WORKING RELATIONSHIPS - MAKE SUGGESTIONS TO OTHERS AND EVALUATE OTHERS´ IDEAS 2- AFTER 1960
CONSCIOUS LEARNING SUBCONSCIOUS LEARNING VS
KRASHEN AND TERREL (1983) ADULTS DEVELOP COMPETENCE IN A SECOND LANGUAGE THROUGH: ACQUISITION which is a subconscious process LANGUAGE LEARNING conscious knowledge of the second language SUBCONSCIOUS ACQUISITION
input + 1 THE INPUT HYPOTHESIS For acquisition to occur, the acquirer must understand the meaning of the message (not concentrate on the form) by relying on their knowledge of the world and the context situation.
THE MONITOR HYPOTHESIS Acquisition initiates our utterances and is responsible for our fluency. Learning has the function of "monitor" or "editor. It requires time, focus on form, and knowing the rule.
Language acquisition of grammatical structures has a certain predictable order NATURAL ORDER HYPOTHESIS
LEARNING IS MEDIATED BY SOCIAL INTERACTION EACH INDIVIDUAL LEARNS DISTINCTIVELY PRIOR KNOWLEDGE AND PAST EXPERIENCES ARE IMPORTANT TO MAKE SENSE OF NEW SITUATIONS LANGUAGE PLAYS A CENTRAL ROLE IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH ORDER THINKING SKILLS MUST BE PROMOTED LANGUAGE SKILLS ARE CRITICAL IN THE CREATION OF MEANING ZPD LEV VYGOTSKI (1896 – 1934)
3. KEY ISSUES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A TEP PROGRAM FOR NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH
ON-GOING NEEDS ANALYSIS TO ASSESS PRESENT SITUATION STATE COURSE OBJECTIVES CLEARLY ON-GOING ASSESSMENT TO DESIGN A ROUTE MAP TO REACH THE EXPECTED OUTCOMES STATE PREFERRED METHODOLOGIES DETERMINE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS DETERMINE TOOLS OF FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT WHAT DETERMINES THE SUCCESS OF A TEP? STEP 1
Who are your learners? Which are the specific objectives of the course? What is the teachers´ profile needed for this program? Which other professional should be part of the TEP team?
Who are your learners ? Which are their strengths and areas of improvement in English ? Which are their background experiences ? What interests do they have ? Which are their talents and their passions, and values ? A thought which has not penetrated to other minds, will die unfruitful Quoted in Steve Aaronson Style in Scientific Writing
Which are the specific objectives of the course? Implement a needs analysis Skills-based Language-based Content-based Competency-based Proficiency based Through observation, interviews, questionnaires, content analysis, job description, role plays, tests, etc. Determine in which settings the learners will use the language. The 21st century skill is to be able to follow one´s own passion (s) as one´s own ability allows Marc Prensky
A scientist can not go voyaging through strange seas of thought alone John R. Platt The teaching team should work together to nurture their potentials towards the achievement of a common goal. Team up efficiently to reach a consensus on: The teaching approach, The curriculum development The syllabus design The assessment measures and tests Resources available to expand students potentials Time for preparation, peer teacher, peer observation
Which other professionals should be part of the TEP team? Administrative Coordinator Possibly a Section volunteer A Teacher of English Possibly as the TEP Educational Coordinator Professors of Electrical and Computer Engineering For topical lectures and exercises in their fields of interest