Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Explaining Second Language Learning

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Explaining Second Language Learning"— Presentation transcript:

1 Explaining Second Language Learning

2 Table of Contents Behaviourism The Innatist Perspective
Cognitive Perspectives Information processing Connectionism The competition model Discussion

3 Behaviourism Explains learning in terms of Stimulus Response
Reinforcement 3

4 Behaviourism Idea of behaviourism

5 Behaviourism Development
Skinner suggested that the same process happens in language learning Strong influence between 1940s and 1970s Influence on Audiolingual teaching materials Classroom activities focused on mimicry and memorization

6 Behaviourism Learning the 2nd language
Skinner‘s idea related to language learning Using stimulus- response-reinforcement model In language learning a behaviourist slant is evident

7 Critique of behaviourism
By the 1970s behaviourism was seen as an inadequate explanation for 2nd language learning

8 Question Which classroom activities were used in language classroom on the background of behaviourism? Mimicry Memorization Dialogues and sentence patterns learned by heart

9 The Innatist Perspective
Universal Grammar An explanaition for 2nd language learning? Different views

10 The Innatist Perspective
UG must be available in FIRST and SECOND language acquisition Either  same nature and availability of UG OR  nature of UG alters by acquisition of others languages

11 The Innatist Perspective
Role of instruction and feedback for 2nd language learners Language acquisition based on natural language availability

12 Krashen’s “monitor model”
Model of 2nd language acquisition Stephen Krashen (theory from 1982) Influenced by Chomsky’s theory and based on five hypotheses

13 Krashen’s “monitor model”
Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis Acquisition  no conscious attention to language Learning  conscious attention to language

14 Krashen’s “monitor model”
2. Monitor hypothesis Acquired system is responsible for spontaneous language use Learned system acts as a monitor

15 Krashen’s “monitor model” 3. Natural order hypothesis
Language features easily to state are not necessarily the first to be acquired Similar to children acquiring 1st language Example: Third person singular –s

16 Krashen’s “monitor model”
4. Input hypothesis Necessary for acquisition: Language is comprehensible The level of that language is just a step beyond your level “i+1”

17 Krashen’s “monitor model” 5. Affective filter hypothesis
Explains why there are people not acquiring language successfully Metaphorical barrier (feelings, motives, needs, attitudes)

18 The Input Hypothesis Model of L2 learning and producion

19 Krashen’s “monitor model”
Krashen’s theories have led to new approaches of language teaching However, there has been a lot of critique on the “monitor model”  What do you criticize on this model?

20 Cognitive/ Developmental Perspective
? =

21 Information Processing N. Segalowitz
knowledge is built up and can be retrieved automatically at first learners have to concentrate on aspects of language later information processing becomes increasingly automatic

22 Information Processing R. DeKeyser
Language learning as “skill learning” declarative knowledge becomes procedural knowledge declarative knowledge may disrupt a fluent speaker later on or may even be forgotten restructuring (may result in backsliding)

23 Transfer Appropriate Processing
Retrieval of information works best, if it is asked for in similar situations as it was learned in

24 Connectionism importance to the environment
only the ability to learn is innate emphasis on frequency knowledge is built up through exposure development of connections chunks

25  learning does not work like a computer:
= ?  learning does not work like a computer: connections and generalizations are drawn and may even cause errors (overgeneralization)

26 The Competition Model Hypothesis:
Language acquisition occurs with the necessity of learners‘ focussed attention or the need for any innate brain module that is specifically for language Proposed as an explanation for 1st and 2nd language acquisition

27 The Competition Model 2nd language acquisition requires that learners learn the relative importance of the different cues appropriate in the language they are learning What are cues and how do we use them? Cues of animacy Relationship between words in a sentence

28 How to use cues.. ‘‘ Box push boy“

29 How to use cues 1st language learning
Cues of animacy of the nouns and knowledge about how things work Word order patterns get stronger than animacy cues Later on attention to grammatical markers

30 How to use cues… 2nd language learners Il giocattolo guarda il bambino
May have difficulty to understand and interpret the sentence, because they don‘t know such a weak word order Italians focuses on the animacy of the two nouns and draw their conclusion

31 Question What is the difference between 2 or 3 year old English speaking children and children by the age of four? 2/3 years old: use cues on animacy of the nouns and their knowledge of the way things work 4 years old: get an idea about an s-v-o interpretation to strings of words. Word order patterns are stronger than animacy cues

32 Discussion

Download ppt "Explaining Second Language Learning"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google