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I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)  Since colonial times, New Englanders lived & worked on farms. ◦ Difficult work  Many Americans were self-sufficient,

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Presentation on theme: "I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)  Since colonial times, New Englanders lived & worked on farms. ◦ Difficult work  Many Americans were self-sufficient,"— Presentation transcript:


2 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)  Since colonial times, New Englanders lived & worked on farms. ◦ Difficult work  Many Americans were self-sufficient, working in their homes to make cloth & most other goods.

3 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)  Mid 1700s-British inventors made machines to do some of work in cloth making-like spinning. ◦ Installed machines in mills. ◦ Mills powered by waterpower- rivers  Industrial Revolution was time when people began working in mills instead of at home. ◦ in U.S. began around 1800

4 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)  Industrial Revolution depended on ◦ New technology (scientific discoveries that simplify work)  Britain developed new machines for spinning cotton into yarn & weaving cloth. ◦ As a result, Britain sold cheapest cloth/thread. ◦ (Cloth/thread called textiles)  It was illegal for cotton spinning machines or their plans to leave Britain.

5 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385) Spinning wheel- 1 thread at a time Spinning Jenny-spins several threads at once Water frame- held 100 spindles of thread (powered by water) Power loom- could produce 200x more cloth than before

6 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)  Britain was very protective over their biz advantage ◦ Made it illegal for machinery, skilled mechanics or even plans to leave Britain. ◦ Some enterprising workers left Britain for US, even though British tried to keep them  Samuel Slater opened cotton mill in RI after copying British designs.

7 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)  New England possessed many requirements for industrial growth. ◦ Poor soil/farming hard work- people willing to leave farming ◦ Many rivers ◦ Close to coal/iron- PA ◦ Many ports- importing of cotton/shipping of goods

8 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)  Industrial growth needs govt. that allows competition & interferes as little as possible  Capitalism, economic system of US, allows people to put capital ($) into biz in hopes of making profit.  Free enterprise is system where people are free to buy, sell, & produce whatever they want. ◦ Workers can work wherever they wish, & biz can compete w/ other biz. ◦ Major elements are: competition, profit, private property, economic freedom

9 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)  Eli Whitney invented cotton gin, simple machine that quickly & efficiently removed seeds from cotton fiber.  He received patent for his invention ◦ (patent gives inventor sole legal right to invention & its profits for certain period of time.)

10  By using cotton gin, one person could clean as much as 50 people working by hand!  Because cotton could be cleaned faster more cloth could be produced.  Eventually led to more slaves

11 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)  Francis Cabot Lowell opened textile mill in MA  All steps of cloth making performed under 1 roof ◦ Factory system, system of bringing manufacturing steps together in 1 place to increase efficiency. ◦ Techniques later applied to other products (lumber, shoes…)

12 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)  “Lowell Girls” & children worked in power loom factory. ◦ Worked 12 to 14 hours/day-6 days/wk. ◦ Earned $3/wk for 70 hours work ◦ Made less than men ◦ Communities would be built around factories  Boarding houses  Strict rules- 10 bedtime, must attend church on Sunday, no gambling, no drinking

13 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)  Eli Whitney also started use of interchangeable parts, identical machine parts that could be quickly put together to make complete product.  Less skilled worker  Mass production  Cheaper  Made repair easier  Made muskets he sold to govt. Eli Whitney

14 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)

15 II. A Changing Economy (pages 386–387)  1820s, < 65% of Americans were farmers.  In Northeast, farms tended to be small & products were sold locally.  In South, cotton production ↑ because of textile industries in New England & Europe. (1790-3,000 bales/ 1820 300,000 bales!)  Cotton gin enabled planters to raise even larger crops. ◦ Larger crops = more slaves

16 II. A Changing Economy (pages 386–387)  Western farmers north of OH River concentrated on raising pork & cash crops such as corn & wheat.  Southern farmers also expanded west to plant cotton- more land.

17 II. A Changing Economy (pages 386–387)  Small investors financed most new industries. ◦ Merchants, shopkeepers, farmers ◦ All hoping to make $ on their investment  Low taxes, few govt. regulations & competition encouraged investors

18 II. A Changing Economy (pages 386–387)  Cities & towns grew w/ growth of new industry. ◦ From 1800- 1850 the amount of people choosing to live in cities more than doubled  New cities began on rivers & streams- waterpower & transportation ◦ Cincinnati, Pittsburgh & Louisville  Old cities (NY, Boston, Baltimore…) became trade centers.

19 II. A Changing Economy (pages 386–387)  Cities looked different from those of today. ◦ Buildings- wood or brick ◦ Streets & sidewalks unpaved ◦ No sewers- waste, dirty water spread diseases  Cholera  Yellow fever ◦ Fires  Wood houses  Closer together  Often no organized fire depts.

20 II. A Changing Economy (pages 386–387)  Cities have advantages too- outweigh dangers for some ◦ Variety of jobs ◦ Steady wages ◦ More culture opportunities  Libraries  Museums  Entertainment  Shops

21 II. A Changing Economy (pages 386–387)

22 I. Moving West (pages 389–390)  In 1820s Congressman Henry Clay of KY prepared plan called The American System ◦ Included building canals & roads to link different regions of country. ◦ Plan had 3 main points:  Estab. protective tariff to protect US businesses from foreign competition.  Estab. national bank to promote single currency, making trade easier.  Improvecountry’s transportation systems, making trade easier & faster for everyone.

23 I. Moving West (pages 389–390)  1st census- official count of population- in 1790 revealed: ◦ almost 4 million people lived in US ◦ most lived east of Appalachian Mtns. (this changed as more people began moving west).  1820 census ◦ Approx. 10 million people lived in US ◦ 2 million west of Appalachians (Trip west is difficult)

24 Roads were either difficult or non-existent (muddy, not paved, rocky, narrow…) Traveling by land was very slow River travel could take a long time; a trip downstream from Pittsburgh to New Orleans took 6 wks, but trip back took 17!! Going upstream needed paddles, poles & sometimes ropes along shore pulling boat

25 I. Moving West (pages 389–390)  The nation needed good inland roads ◦ Travel ◦ Shipment of goods  Turnpikes- private companies would pave roads w/ gravel & stone, then put up obstacles that people would have to pay to have moved so they could continue using road  Corduroy roads- logs were laid down in swampy/muddy areas to travel over (bumpy but you wouldn’t sink)

26 I. Moving West (pages 389–390) Boonsborough Turnpike Rd- Maryland

27  Covered wooden bridges- stone bridges were expensive and wooden bridges rotted away quickly so people came up with covered bridges to protect from the elements

28 I. Moving West (pages 389–390)  Congress approved a National Road to West in 1806. ◦ OH had asked for road to link it to East  1811 National Road was started-finished 1818 ◦ ran from MD to western VA ◦ 1st time govt. $ was set aside by Congress for national road ◦ Later extended to IL


30 I. Moving West (pages 389–390)  River travel was easier/more comfortable than travel by horse & wagon but ◦ could not provide adequate east-west travel  Most rivers N/S ◦ was very slow traveling upstream.

31  Flat-bottomed boats designed to travel downriver.  Some had no enclosure, while more refined ones came complete w/ neat bedchambers & fireplaces.  They ranged from 8-20 ft wide & could be 20-100 ft long.  Their advantage was being able to float in shallow waters.  Pioneers would often break the boat down after travel to build their homes.

32 I. Moving West (pages 389–390)  1807, Robert Fulton developed steamboat w/ powerful engine. ◦ The Clermont was built to carry cargo & passengers up Hudson R. from NYC to Albany, NY.  Trip took 32 hrs instead of 4 days! ◦ Steamboats made transportation of goods cheaper since it was so much faster ◦ By 1850 more than 700 steamboats

33  Steamboats carried passengers & goods  Steamboat was cheap, fast means of transportation  Henry Shreve designed flat-bottomed steamboat that would not get stuck in shallow waters  Steamboat travel could be dangerous; from 1811- 1851 44 steamboats collided, 166 burned & more than 200 exploded

34  Water travel still depended on existing lakes/rivers ◦ NY business & govt officials came up w/ plan to link NYC w/Great Lakes region:  build canal (artificial waterway) across NY linking Albany on Hudson R. to Buffalo on Lake Erie.  Thousands of laborers, many of them Irish immigrants, worked on Erie Canal. II. Canals (pages 392–393)

35 Erie Canal

36  Along canal, workers built series of locks- separate compartments where water levels were raised or lowered.  Erie Canal opened in 1825 after 2 yrs of digging. II. Canals (pages 392–393)

37  Steamboats were not allowed on canal in early yrs ◦ barges were pulled by 2-horse teams. ◦ Success of canal led to boom in canal building.  By 1850, US had more than 3,600 mi. of canals. ◦ United country ◦ Created opportunities for new businesses to supply food, shelter, & other necessities to workers & travelers. ◦ Towns along canals prospered. II. Canals (pages 392–393)

38  Western migration led to admission of new states to union. ◦ 1 st wave-1791-1803, 4 new states (VT, KY, TN, and OH) were admitted to US. ◦ 2 nd wave-1816-18215 more (IN, IL, MS, AL, & MO) were admitted. III.Western Settlement (pages 393–394)

39  At 1 st pioneer families settled along great rivers, so that they could ship their crops to market.  After canals they could settle further out  Pioneer homes (homesteads) were often 3- sided shacks or log cabins w/ dirt floors & no windows or doors. III.Western Settlement (pages 393–394)

40  Pioneers gathered for social events. ◦ Men took part in sports ◦ Women met for quilting & sewing parties. ◦ Both men & women participated in cornhusking. ◦ Not glamorous or exciting like city life  Pioneers moved west for more opportunities for themselves & family III.Western Settlement (pages 393–394)

41  US was strongly linked w/ transportation improvements ◦ Goods, food, news all made their way around country  Congress established home delivery of letters in 1825 ◦ In 1847 Congress created 1st national postage stamps. III.Western Settlement (pages 393–394)

42 I. Northern Factories (pages 396–397)  Btwn 1820-1860, more of nation’s manufacturing moved from homes to factories.  Not only textile- factory system also used to manufacture shoes, watches, guns, sewing machines…  Working conditions in factories worsened as factory system developed. ◦ Most factory workers avg. 11.4 hrs/day, ◦ On-the-job accidents were common. ◦ No laws existed to protect workers from poor working conditions.

43  Dangerous conditions ◦ No safety devices ◦ Little ventilation- in summer really hot ◦ No heating- in winter really cold- many got sick  Poor treatment by employers- oversupply of workers ◦ Larger- less humane ◦ Lower wages ◦ Injured workers lost job

44 I. Northern Factories (pages 396–397)  Workers began organizing to improve working conditions, forming trade unions- org. of workers w/ same trade, or skill.  In 1830s, skilled workers in NYC staged series of strikes, refusing to work to put pressure on employers to give workers higher wages & limited work hours.

45  Strikes were illegal at time & strikers faced fines or jail time, leaders were sometimes fired  Unions make slow progress ◦ 1840 new law stating work day no longer than 10 hrs. for gov’t employees- unions asked for same & got it ◦ 1842 MA court found workers had right to strike ◦ Artisans (skilled workers) were more successful than unskilled workers

46 I. Northern Factories (pages 396–397)  Slavery had largely disappeared in North by 1820  Racial prejudice & discrimination remained. ◦ Most communities did not allow free African Americans to attend public schools. ◦ Most states didn’t allow to vote ◦ Often not hired ◦ Free Af. Americans segregated in public facilities, such as hospitals & schools.

47 I. Northern Factories (pages 396–397)  Despite the discrimination and prejudice some Af. Americans still managed to thrive: ◦ Henry Boyd owned furniture co. in OH. ◦ Samuel Cornish & John B. Russwurm founded the Freedom Journal, 1st African American newspaper. ◦ John B. Russwurm graduated from college ◦ Macon Allen- 1 st Af. Am. licensed to practice law ◦ John Jones- ran tailoring business & worked to stop segregation in public schools & change laws

48 I. Northern Factories (pages 396–397)  Women had a hard time in workplace ◦ Employers discriminated against them, paid lower wages. ◦ Unions excluded women  Many men believed women should stay at home- raise wages for men so wives could stay home  Men wanted women out of workplace to make more jobs for men.

49 I. Northern Factories (pages 396–397)  Sarah G. Bagley founded the Lowell Female Labor Reform Organization ◦ (Remember “Lowell Girls”) ◦ Asked state legislature for 10-hr workday  Women could not vote so didn’t have much influence w/lawmakers

50  The growth of factories helped Northern cities grow.  1860- 2 largest cities: NY City pop. 1 mill; Philadelphia pop. more than 500,000 ◦ Former villages became big cities because of location on rivers (Cincinnati, St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Louisville) ◦ After 1830 Great Lake cities become centers of trade (Chicago, Buffalo, Detroit, Milwaukee)  Immigration increased btwn 1840-1860. ◦ Factory owners welcomed immigrants- willing to work for low pay. II. The Rise of Cities (pages 398–401)

51  Largest group of immigrants-Ireland btwn 1846-1860 after potato famine ◦ Black rot destroyed potato crops in 1840s. ◦ Btw 1845-60 1.5 million Irish came to US- esp. Boston & NY  lived in neighborhoods together  Irish immigrants had been farmers but took jobs: ◦ in factories ◦ as house servants ◦ performing manual labor  working on railroads  digging canals II. The Rise of Cities (pages 398–401)

52  2nd-largest group of immigrants came from Germany btwn 1820-1860. ◦ In 1848 Germany had failed revolution- many of revolutionaries had to flee for their lives ◦ Others came for chance at better life ◦ Over 1 million came to US during 1850s  Many had $ to move here & were artisans- flourished  opened their own businesses  bought farms  settled mainly in NY, PA, & Midwest II. The Rise of Cities (pages 398–401)

53  Immigrants brought w/them their own: ◦ Languages ◦ Customs  German Christmas tree decorating  Clothing ◦ Religions  Catholic (almost all Irish and ½ German) ◦ Ways of life  Irish especially lived in neighborhoods- often slums II. The Rise of Cities (pages 398–401)

54  Some Americans feared immigrants were changing nation for worse. ◦ Blamed immigrants for  Crime  Stealing jobs-by working for lower pay  Bringing disease ◦ People opposed to immigration- nativists. ◦ Wanted America for native-born whites II. The Rise of Cities (pages 398–401)

55  Because many immigrants were Catholic, nativists formed secret anti-Catholic societies ◦ Also formed new political party- American Party. ◦ Their party became known as “Know-Nothing” because of their common response ◦ Party- won some elections but died out fairly quick ◦ Wanted to:  Limit immigration into US  Raise waiting period to vote from 5 to 21!  Make it illegal for immigrants to hold office ◦ The party split in 1850s over issue of slavery. II. The Rise of Cities (pages 398–401)

56 I. The Reforming Spirit (page 403)  People who led reform movement believed nation’s ideals of liberty & equality should extend to all Americans.  Reformers sought to improve society by forming utopias, communities based on vision of perfect society. ◦ Some tried to create ◦ Lasted short time

57 I. The Reforming Spirit (page 403)  A wave of religious fervor known as 2nd Great Awakening began in early 1800s ◦ Held revivals, or frontier camp meetings.  People traveled for miles to hear preachers & pray, sing, & shout. ◦ Finney was leader of 2 nd Great Awakening  Powerful speaker who inspired many  Wrote articles giving tips on effective preaching  Strongly believed in complete reformation of whole world- starting w/self

58 I. The Reforming Spirit (page 403)  Religious leaders preached against alcohol ◦ Reformers blamed alcohol for poverty, crime, & insanity. ◦ They called for temperance, drinking little or no alcohol. ◦ Soon states began passing laws to ban manufacture & sale of alcohol.

59  Not only men were abusing alcohol but women & children as well- sold in candy stores & barber shops  “Demon rum” could lead to abuse & desertion of families  Maine & 8 other states passed laws to ban alcohol

60  In early 1800s, many reformers began pushing for system of public education.  Pre-1820 there were very few schools  In 1820s NY ordered every town to build school- other northern states followed  School ended in 8 th for most- very few public high schools II. Reforming Education (page 405)

61  Horace Mann, lawyer who became head of MA Board of Education, was leader in educational reform. ◦ Better teachers (higher pay) ◦ More gov’t funding to build more schools ◦ Longer school year  MA founded 1st normal school, school for training high-school graduates to become teachers. II. Reforming Education (page 405)

62  New colleges were created during age of reform ◦ Many religious colleges established  Trinity  Wesleyan ◦ Most admitted only men. ◦ African Americans & women began to have some access to higher education. ◦ 1833 Oberlin College of OH was coeducational and accepted Af. Americans II. Reforming Education (page 405)

63  A few northern cities set up separate schools for black students- had little funding  Prudence Crandall set up school for Af.American girls in CT ◦ Public outraged & hostile ◦ Jailed Prudence 3x ◦ Finally destroyed school  Some Af. Americans did attend private colleges  Some colleges specifically for Af. Americans founded ◦ 1854- Ashmun Institute PA- 1 st college for Af. Americans II. Reforming Education (page 405)

64  Most women received limited education. ◦ Daughters were kept from school & taught to be good mothers & wives. ◦ 1837 Mary Lyon opened Mount Holyoke in MA - 1 st permanent women’s college  When girls did go to school, they often studied music or needlework ◦ Math, science & history were considered “boys’ subjects”. II. Reforming Education (page 405)

65  Thomas Gallaudet developed method to educate people who were hearing impaired. ◦ Opened Hartford School for the Deaf in 1817.  Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe developed books w/ raised letters that people w/ visual impairments could read w/ their fingers. II. Reforming Education (page 405)

66  Ministers called for helping “outsiders” in society- criminals & mentally ill  Dorothea visited a prison- shocked to find innocent mentally ill women there  She was so shocked w/ mistreatment she decided to fight for rights of insane  She visited every jail, poorhouse & hospital in MA & got lawmakers to change policies- she then moved on to other states & did same

67  Prisons were fairly new to U.S. ◦ Previously serious offenses had been punished by death ◦ Less serious offenders received some sort of physical punishment  Jails housed men, women & children ◦ Poor conditions ◦ Corrupt ◦ 4 out of 5 were debtors not criminals  Eventually jails were not used for debtors & system became more humane

68  Transcendentalists-writers & thinkers who stressed relationship btwn humans & nature.  Believed most important truths in life went over or “transcended” human reason ◦ Emotions over reason  Every person had control over his/her life  Many were social reformers ◦ Ralph Waldo Emerson ◦ Henry David Thoreau ◦ Margaret Fuller- voiced her support for women’s rights in her writing. III.Cultural Trends (pages 406–407)

69  A major American poet, philosopher, lecturer & center of American Transcendental movement.  Big fan of nature  Anti-material wealth  Each person has “inner light” (conscience/intuition)

70  Essayist, poet & philosopher  Good friend of Emerson  Best-known for his autobiographical story of year alone in woods, Walden (1854).  Anti growth of cities  His "Civil Disobedience" (1849) influenced Gandhi & Martin Luther King Jr.  Believed in marching to beat of “different drummer”

71  Henry David Thoreau- writer who represented new spirit of reform in America. ◦ Jailed rather than pay tax ◦ Anti Mexican War III.Cultural Trends (pages 406–407)

72  Walt Whitman wrote about nature, common people, & American democracy in his volume of poetry called Leaves of Grass.  Emily Dickinson, best-remembered woman poet of era, wrote simple, personal, deeply emotional poetry. III.Cultural Trends (pages 406–407)

73  Harriet Beecher Stowe (ch. 12) wrote best- selling novel called Uncle Tom’s Cabin. ◦ This work explored injustice of slavery.  Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote narrative, or story, poems about American subjects. ◦ America’s favorite poet of day; “Paul Revere’s Ride”, “Hiawatha” III.Cultural Trends (pages 406–407)

74  Could not vote  Could not hold office  After marriage husband became owner of all woman’s property  If woman had job- $ belonged to husband  Husbands could legally hit wives!

75  Female abolitionists began to realize they didn’t have rights they wanted African Am. to have!  Woman active in both abolitionist & women’s rights movement: ◦ Sojourner Truth ◦ Lucretia Mott ◦ Elizabeth Cady Stanton ◦ Grimke sisters

76 “That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody helps me any best place. And ain’t I a woman?…If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn it back and get it right- side up again. And now that they are asking to do it the men better let them.”

77 I. Women and Reform (pages 409–410)  Lucretia Mott – Quaker who lectured for ◦ Peace ◦ Temperance ◦ Workers’ rights ◦ Abolition  founded Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society in 1833 ◦ She also helped fugitive slaves

78 I. Women and Reform (pages 409–410)  Elizabeth Cady Stanton- very intelligent, daughter of NY judge ◦ Abolitionist ◦ Active in temperance movement ◦ Women’s rights  Husband and brother were also active

79 I. Women and Reform (pages 409–410)  Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stanton  Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stanton met at World Antislavery Convention in London ◦ Ironically not allowed to participate because they were women  Elizabeth Cady Stanton helped organize 1st women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, NY

80 I. Women and Reform (pages 409–410)  Seneca Falls Convention issued Declaration of Sentiments & Resolutions ◦ Declared that all men & women were equal ◦ Called for end to discrimination against women ◦ Demanded women’s suffrage, right to vote.

81 Tradition - people believed woman’s role was in home taking care of family. Women - many women felt new freedoms also meant new responsibilities. Laws - many laws limited & restricted opportunities open to women. Religion – Many organized religions viewed women as subservient to men.

82  Amelia Bloomer advocated wearing of “bloomer costume”  In May of 1851 Amelia Bloomer introduced Susan B. Anthony to Elizabeth Cady Stanton. ◦ Stanton said, "I liked her immediately and why I did not invite her home to dinner with me I do not know."

83  Ted Aub sculpted life-sized bronze figures "When Anthony Met Stanton“. As in real-life, Bloomer & Stanton are wearing "Bloomer Costume" which bloomer publicized in "The Lily."

84  Corsets a.k.a. “tightlacers”  Reformers supported looser garment- bloomers

85 I. Women and Reform (pages 409–410)  1800s women’s rights movement grew  Susan B. Anthony called for: ◦ = pay ◦ College training for girls ◦ Coeducation- teaching boys & girls together.  Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton led women’s rights movement.

86  Industrial Revolution began to change economic roles of men & women (esp. in North). ◦ Men took care of work outside home ◦ Women took care of home & family  Outside world too dangerous  Woman’s role in home  Better religious role models ◦ Magazine articles and novels supported view of women staying at home II. Progress by American Women (pages 411–413)

87  Education reform leaders began to call for more educational opportunities for women. ◦ Emma Willard estab. Troy Female Seminary in NY  Taught girls “boys’ subjects” ◦ Mary Lyon estab. Mt Holyoke Female Seminary in MA ◦ Some male colleges began admitting women II. Progress by American Women (pages 411–413)

88  During 1800s women made some gains in area of marriage & property laws. Some states: ◦ Allowed women to own property ◦ To share guardianship of their children jointly w/their husbands ◦ To divorce their husbands if they abused alcohol. II. Progress by American Women (pages 411–413)

89  Women began entering fields such as medicine & ministry in 1800s. ◦ Elizabeth Blackwell  attended medical school  graduated 1 st in class  earned medical degree & became successful doctor  set up medical school for women II. Progress by American Women (pages 411–413)

90 1848 - Seneca Fall Convention 1853 - 1st woman ordained as minister in Protestant church 1855 - 1 st woman on record to keep her name after marriage 1855 - U. of IA 1st state school to admit women 1869 - 1st woman suffrage law in U.S. passed 1870 - 1st time for women to serve on juries 1870 - 1st state to admit woman to bar (IA)

91 1872 - 1 st women to register to vote in prez. election 1875 - 1 st women’s college founded- Smith’s 1879 - 1 st woman allowed to present to Supreme Court 1917 - 1 st woman elected to US congress (MT) 1919- 19 th Amend. gives women the vote in US 1924 - 1st woman elected gov. of state (WY) 1932 - 1st woman elected US senator 1971 - 1st battered women’s shelter opened (IL) 1973 - 1st time U.S. military is integrated (women- only branches are eliminated) 1981 - 1 st woman on Supreme Court- Sandra Day O’Connor

92  In 1919, there were 48 state in USA.  To get required 3/4th majority for ratification, 19th Amendment needed approval of at least 36 states.

93 June 1919 WI IL KS TX OH MI PA NY MA

94 July 1919 IA MO AK

95 August 1919 NE MT

96 September 1919 MNNH

97 October 1919 UT

98 November 1919 ME CA

99 December 1919 WI ND SD

100 January 1920 OR RI IN KY

101 February 1920 NJ AZNM NV ID OK

102 March 1920 WA WV

103 August 1920 TN

104 Did not vote on 19th Amendment

105 Not States in 1919-20

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