Presentation on theme: "I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385)"— Presentation transcript:
1 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385) Since colonial times, New Englanders lived & worked on farms.Difficult workMany Americans were self-sufficient, working in their homes to make cloth & most other goods.
2 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385) Mid 1700s-British inventors made machines to do some of work in cloth making-like spinning.Installed machines in mills.Mills powered by waterpower- riversIndustrial Revolution was time when people began working in mills instead of at home.in U.S. began around 1800
3 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385) Industrial Revolution depended onNew technology (scientific discoveries that simplify work)Britain developed new machines for spinning cotton into yarn & weaving cloth.As a result, Britain sold cheapest cloth/thread.(Cloth/thread called textiles)It was illegal for cotton spinning machines or their plans to leave Britain.
4 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385) Spinning Jenny-spins several threads at onceSpinning wheel- 1 thread at a timeWater frame-held 100 spindles of thread (powered by water)Power loom- could produce 200x more cloth than before
5 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385) Britain was very protective over their biz advantageMade it illegal for machinery, skilled mechanics or even plans to leave Britain.Some enterprising workers left Britain for US, even though British tried to keep themSamuel Slater opened cotton mill in RI after copying British designs.
6 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385) New England possessed many requirements for industrial growth.Poor soil/farming hard work- people willing to leave farmingMany riversClose to coal/iron- PAMany ports- importing of cotton/shipping of goods
7 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385) Industrial growth needs govt. that allows competition & interferes as little as possibleCapitalism, economic system of US, allows people to put capital ($) into biz in hopes of making profit.Free enterprise is system where people are free to buy, sell, & produce whatever they want.Workers can work wherever they wish, & biz can compete w/ other biz.Major elements are: competition, profit, private property, economic freedom
8 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385) Eli Whitney invented cotton gin, simple machine that quickly & efficiently removed seeds from cotton fiber.He received patent for his invention(patent gives inventor sole legal right to invention & its profits for certain period of time.)
9 The Importance of Cotton Gin By using cotton gin, one person could clean as much as 50 people working by hand!Because cotton could be cleaned faster more cloth could be produced.Eventually led to more slaves
10 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385) Francis Cabot Lowell opened textile mill in MAAll steps of cloth making performed under 1 roofFactory system, system of bringing manufacturing steps together in 1 place to increase efficiency.Techniques later applied to other products (lumber, shoes…)
11 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385) “Lowell Girls” & children worked in power loom factory.Worked 12 to 14 hours/day-6 days/wk.Earned $3/wk for 70 hours workMade less than menCommunities would be built around factoriesBoarding housesStrict rules- 10 bedtime, must attend church on Sunday, no gambling, no drinking
12 I. The Growth of Industry (pages 383–385) Eli Whitney also started use of interchangeable parts, identical machine parts that could be quickly put together to make complete product.Less skilled workerMass productionCheaperMade repair easierMade muskets he sold to govt.Eli Whitney
14 II. A Changing Economy (pages 386–387) 1820s, < 65% of Americans were farmers.In Northeast, farms tended to be small & products were sold locally.In South, cotton production ↑ because of textile industries in New England & Europe. (1790-3,000 bales/ ,000 bales!)Cotton gin enabled planters to raise even larger crops.Larger crops = more slaves
15 II. A Changing Economy (pages 386–387) Western farmers north of OH River concentrated on raising pork & cash crops such as corn & wheat.Southern farmers also expanded west to plant cotton- more land.
16 II. A Changing Economy (pages 386–387) Small investors financed most new industries.Merchants, shopkeepers, farmersAll hoping to make $ on their investmentLow taxes, few govt. regulations & competition encouraged investors
17 II. A Changing Economy (pages 386–387) Cities & towns grew w/ growth of new industry.From the amount of people choosing to live in cities more than doubledNew cities began on rivers & streams- waterpower & transportationCincinnati, Pittsburgh & LouisvilleOld cities (NY, Boston, Baltimore…) became trade centers.
18 II. A Changing Economy (pages 386–387) Cities looked different from those of today.Buildings- wood or brickStreets & sidewalks unpavedNo sewers- waste, dirty water spread diseasesCholeraYellow feverFiresWood housesCloser togetherOften no organized fire depts.
19 II. A Changing Economy (pages 386–387) Cities have advantages too- outweigh dangers for someVariety of jobsSteady wagesMore culture opportunitiesLibrariesMuseumsEntertainmentShops
21 Estab. national bank to promote single currency, making trade easier. I. Moving West (pages 389–390)In 1820s Congressman Henry Clay of KY prepared plan called The American SystemIncluded building canals & roads to link different regions of country.Plan had 3 main points:Estab. protective tariff to protect US businesses from foreign competition.Estab. national bank to promote single currency, making trade easier.Improvecountry’s transportation systems, making trade easier & faster for everyone.
22 1st census- official count of population- in 1790 revealed: I. Moving West (pages 389–390)1st census- official count of population- in revealed:almost 4 million people lived in USmost lived east of Appalachian Mtns.(this changed as more people began moving west).1820 censusApprox. 10 million people lived in US2 million west of Appalachians(Trip west is difficult)
23 Difficulties in transportation • Roads were either difficult or non-existent(muddy, not paved, rocky, narrow…)• Traveling by land was very slow• River travel could take a long time; a trip downstream from Pittsburgh to New Orleans took 6 wks, but trip back took 17!!• Going upstream needed paddles, poles & sometimes ropes along shore pulling boat
24 The nation needed good inland roads I. Moving West (pages 389–390)The nation needed good inland roadsTravelShipment of goodsTurnpikes- private companies would pave roads w/ gravel & stone, then put up obstacles that people would have to pay to have moved so they could continue using roadCorduroy roads- logs were laid down in swampy/muddy areas to travel over (bumpy but you wouldn’t sink)
25 I. Moving West (pages 389–390)Boonsborough Turnpike Rd- Maryland
26 Covered wooden bridges- stone bridges were expensive and wooden bridges rotted away quickly so people came up with covered bridges to protect from the elements
27 Congress approved a National Road to West in 1806. I. Moving West (pages 389–390)Congress approved a National Road to West in 1806.OH had asked for road to link it to East1811 National Road was started-finished 1818ran from MD to western VA1st time govt. $ was set aside by Congress for national roadLater extended to IL
29 I. Moving West (pages 389–390)River travel was easier/more comfortable than travel by horse & wagon butcould not provide adequate east-west travelMost rivers N/Swas very slow traveling upstream.
30 Flat-bottomed boats designed to travel downriver. Some had no enclosure, while more refined ones came complete w/ neat bedchambers & fireplaces.They ranged from 8-20 ft wide & could be ft long.Their advantage was being able to float in shallow waters.Pioneers would often break the boat down after travel to build their homes.
31 1807, Robert Fulton developed steamboat w/ powerful engine. I. Moving West (pages 389–390)1807, Robert Fulton developed steamboat w/ powerful engine.The Clermont was built to carry cargo & passengers up Hudson R. from NYC to Albany, NY.Trip took 32 hrs instead of 4 days!Steamboats made transportation of goods cheaper since it was so much fasterBy 1850 more than 700 steamboats
32 Steamboats carried passengers & goods Steamboat was cheap, fast means of transportationHenry Shreve designed flat-bottomed steamboat that would not get stuck in shallow watersSteamboat travel could be dangerous; from steamboats collided, 166 burned & more than 200 exploded
33 Water travel still depended on existing lakes/rivers II. Canals (pages 392–393)Water travel still depended on existing lakes/riversNY business & govt officials came up w/ plan to link NYC w/Great Lakes region:build canal (artificial waterway) across NY linking Albany on Hudson R. to Buffalo on Lake Erie.Thousands of laborers, many of them Irish immigrants, worked on Erie Canal.
35 II. Canals (pages 392–393)Along canal, workers built series of locks- separate compartments where water levels were raised or lowered.Erie Canal opened in after 2 yrs of digging.
36 Steamboats were not allowed on canal in early yrs II. Canals (pages 392–393)Steamboats were not allowed on canal in early yrsbarges were pulled by 2-horse teams.Success of canal led to boom in canal building.By 1850, US had more than 3,600 mi. of canals.United countryCreated opportunities for new businesses to supply food, shelter, & other necessities to workers & travelers.Towns along canals prospered.
37 III. Western Settlement (pages 393–394) Western migration led to admission of new states to union.1st wave , 4 new states (VT, KY, TN, and OH) were admitted to US.2nd wave more (IN, IL, MS, AL, & MO) were admitted.
38 III. Western Settlement (pages 393–394) At 1st pioneer families settled along great rivers, so that they could ship their crops to market.After canals they could settle further outPioneer homes (homesteads) were often 3- sided shacks or log cabins w/ dirt floors & no windows or doors.
39 III. Western Settlement (pages 393–394) Pioneers gathered for social events.Men took part in sportsWomen met for quilting & sewing parties.Both men & women participated in cornhusking.Not glamorous or exciting like city lifePioneers moved west for more opportunities for themselves & family
40 III. Western Settlement (pages 393–394) US was strongly linked w/ transportation improvementsGoods, food, news all made their way around countryCongress established home delivery of letters in 1825In 1847 Congress created 1st national postage stamps.
41 I. Northern Factories (pages 396–397) Btwn , more of nation’s manufacturing moved from homes to factories.Not only textile- factory system also used to manufacture shoes, watches, guns, sewing machines…Working conditions in factories worsened as factory system developed.Most factory workers avg hrs/day,On-the-job accidents were common.No laws existed to protect workers from poor working conditions.
42 Poor treatment by employers- oversupply of workers Dangerous conditionsNo safety devicesLittle ventilation- in summer really hotNo heating- in winter really cold- many got sickPoor treatment by employers- oversupply of workersLarger- less humaneLower wagesInjured workers lost job
43 I. Northern Factories (pages 396–397) Workers began organizing to improve working conditions, forming trade unions- org. of workers w/ same trade, or skill.In 1830s, skilled workers in NYC staged series of strikes, refusing to work to put pressure on employers to give workers higher wages & limited work hours.
44 Workers Unite!Strikes were illegal at time & strikers faced fines or jail time, leaders were sometimes firedUnions make slow progress1840 new law stating work day no longer than 10 hrs. for gov’t employees- unions asked for same & got it1842 MA court found workers had right to strikeArtisans (skilled workers) were more successful than unskilled workers
45 I. Northern Factories (pages 396–397) Slavery had largely disappeared in North by 1820Racial prejudice & discrimination remained.Most communities did not allow free African Americans to attend public schools.Most states didn’t allow to voteOften not hiredFree Af. Americans segregated in public facilities, such as hospitals & schools.
46 I. Northern Factories (pages 396–397) Despite the discrimination and prejudice some Af. Americans still managed to thrive:Henry Boyd owned furniture co. in OH.Samuel Cornish & John B. Russwurm founded the Freedom Journal, 1st African American newspaper.John B. Russwurm graduated from collegeMacon Allen- 1st Af. Am. licensed to practice lawJohn Jones- ran tailoring business & worked to stop segregation in public schools & change laws
47 I. Northern Factories (pages 396–397) Women had a hard time in workplaceEmployers discriminated against them, paid lower wages.Unions excluded womenMany men believed women should stay at home- raise wages for men so wives could stay homeMen wanted women out of workplace to make more jobs for men.
48 I. Northern Factories (pages 396–397) Sarah G. Bagley founded the Lowell Female Labor Reform Organization(Remember “Lowell Girls”)Asked state legislature for 10-hr workdayWomen could not vote so didn’t have much influence w/lawmakers
49 II. The Rise of Cities (pages 398–401) The growth of factories helped Northern cities grow.largest cities: NY City pop. 1 mill; Philadelphia pop. more than 500,000Former villages became big cities because of location on rivers (Cincinnati, St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Louisville)After 1830 Great Lake cities become centers of trade (Chicago, Buffalo, Detroit, Milwaukee)Immigration increased btwnFactory owners welcomed immigrants- willing to work for low pay.
50 II. The Rise of Cities (pages 398–401) Largest group of immigrants-Ireland btwn after potato famineBlack rot destroyed potato crops in 1840s.Btw million Irish came to US- esp. Boston & NYlived in neighborhoods togetherIrish immigrants had been farmers but took jobs:in factoriesas house servantsperforming manual laborworking on railroadsdigging canals
51 II. The Rise of Cities (pages 398–401) 2nd-largest group of immigrants came from Germany btwnIn 1848 Germany had failed revolution- many of revolutionaries had to flee for their livesOthers came for chance at better lifeOver 1 million came to US during 1850sMany had $ to move here & were artisans- flourishedopened their own businessesbought farmssettled mainly in NY, PA, & Midwest
52 II. The Rise of Cities (pages 398–401) Immigrants brought w/them their own:LanguagesCustomsGerman Christmas tree decoratingClothingReligionsCatholic (almost all Irish and ½ German)Ways of lifeIrish especially lived in neighborhoods- often slums
53 II. The Rise of Cities (pages 398–401) Some Americans feared immigrants were changing nation for worse.Blamed immigrants forCrimeStealing jobs-by working for lower payBringing diseasePeople opposed to immigration- nativists.Wanted America for native-born whites
54 II. The Rise of Cities (pages 398–401) Because many immigrants were Catholic, nativists formed secret anti-Catholic societiesAlso formed new political party- American Party.Their party became known as “Know-Nothing” because of their common responseParty- won some elections but died out fairly quickWanted to:Limit immigration into USRaise waiting period to vote from 5 to 21!Make it illegal for immigrants to hold officeThe party split in 1850s over issue of slavery.
55 I. The Reforming Spirit (page 403) People who led reform movement believed nation’s ideals of liberty & equality should extend to all Americans.Reformers sought to improve society by forming utopias, communities based on vision of perfect society.Some tried to createLasted short time
56 I. The Reforming Spirit (page 403) A wave of religious fervor known as 2nd Great Awakening began in early 1800sHeld revivals, or frontier camp meetings.People traveled for miles to hear preachers & pray, sing, & shout.Finney was leader of 2nd Great AwakeningPowerful speaker who inspired manyWrote articles giving tips on effective preachingStrongly believed in complete reformationof whole world- starting w/self
57 I. The Reforming Spirit (page 403) Religious leaders preached against alcoholReformers blamed alcohol for poverty, crime, & insanity.They called for temperance, drinking little or no alcohol.Soon states began passing laws to ban manufacture & sale of alcohol.
58 Not only men were abusing alcohol but women & children as well- sold in candy stores & barber shops “Demon rum” could lead to abuse & desertion of familiesMaine & 8 other states passed laws to ban alcohol
59 II. Reforming Education (page 405) In early 1800s, many reformers began pushing for system of public education.Pre-1820 there were very few schoolsIn 1820s NY ordered every town to build school- other northern states followedSchool ended in 8th for most- very few public high schools
60 II. Reforming Education (page 405) Horace Mann, lawyer who became head of MA Board of Education, was leader in educational reform.Better teachers (higher pay)More gov’t funding to build more schoolsLonger school yearMA founded 1st normal school, school for training high-school graduates to become teachers.
61 II. Reforming Education (page 405) New colleges were created during age of reformMany religious colleges establishedTrinityWesleyanMost admitted only men.African Americans & women began to have some access to higher education.1833 Oberlin College of OH was coeducational and accepted Af. Americans
62 II. Reforming Education (page 405) A few northern cities set up separate schools for black students- had little fundingPrudence Crandall set up school for Af.American girls in CTPublic outraged & hostileJailed Prudence 3xFinally destroyed schoolSome Af. Americans did attend private collegesSome colleges specifically for Af. Americans founded1854- Ashmun Institute PA- 1st college for Af. Americans
63 II. Reforming Education (page 405) Most women received limited education.Daughters were kept from school & taught to be good mothers & wives.1837 Mary Lyon opened Mount Holyoke in MA - 1st permanent women’s collegeWhen girls did go to school, they often studied music or needleworkMath, science & history were considered “boys’ subjects”.
64 II. Reforming Education (page 405) Thomas Gallaudet developed method to educate people who were hearing impaired.Opened Hartford School for the Deaf in 1817.Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe developed books w/ raised letters that people w/ visual impairments could read w/ their fingers.
65 Dorothea DixMinisters called for helping “outsiders” in society- criminals & mentally illDorothea visited a prison- shocked to find innocent mentally ill women thereShe was so shocked w/ mistreatment she decided to fight for rights of insaneShe visited every jail, poorhouse & hospital in MA & got lawmakers to change policies- she then moved on to other states & did same
66 Prisons were fairly new to U.S. Previously serious offenses had been punished by deathLess serious offenders received some sort of physical punishmentJails housed men, women & childrenPoor conditionsCorrupt4 out of 5 were debtors not criminalsEventually jails were not used for debtors & system became more humane
67 III. Cultural Trends (pages 406–407) Transcendentalists-writers & thinkers who stressed relationship btwn humans & nature.Believed most important truths in life went over or “transcended” human reasonEmotions over reasonEvery person had control over his/her lifeMany were social reformersRalph Waldo EmersonHenry David ThoreauMargaret Fuller- voiced her support for women’s rights in her writing.
68 Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) A major American poet, philosopher, lecturer & center of American Transcendental movement.Big fan of natureAnti-material wealthEach person has “inner light”(conscience/intuition)
69 Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) Essayist, poet & philosopherGood friend of EmersonBest-known for his autobiographical story of year alone in woods, Walden (1854).Anti growth of citiesHis "Civil Disobedience" (1849) influenced Gandhi & Martin Luther King Jr.Believed in marching to beat of “different drummer”
70 III. Cultural Trends (pages 406–407) Henry David Thoreau- writer who represented new spirit of reform in America.Jailed rather than pay taxAnti Mexican War
71 III. Cultural Trends (pages 406–407) Walt Whitman wrote about nature, common people, & American democracy in his volume of poetry called Leaves of Grass.Emily Dickinson, best-remembered woman poet of era, wrote simple, personal, deeply emotional poetry.
72 III. Cultural Trends (pages 406–407) Harriet Beecher Stowe (ch. 12) wrote best- selling novel called Uncle Tom’s Cabin.This work explored injustice of slavery.Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote narrative, or story, poems about American subjects.America’s favorite poet of day; “Paul Revere’s Ride”, “Hiawatha”
73 Rights of Women in Mid 1800s Could not vote Could not hold office After marriage husband became owner of all woman’s propertyIf woman had job- $ belonged to husbandHusbands could legally hit wives!
74 Hey, I Don’t Have Those Rights! Female abolitionists began to realize they didn’t have rights they wanted African Am. to have!Woman active in both abolitionist & women’s rights movement:Sojourner TruthLucretia MottElizabeth Cady StantonGrimke sisters
75 “Ain’t I a woman?” -Sojourner Truth, 1851 “That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody helps me any best place. And ain’t I a woman?…If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn it back and get it right-side up again. And now that they are asking to do it the men better let them.”
76 I. Women and Reform (pages 409–410) Lucretia Mott – Quaker who lectured forPeaceTemperanceWorkers’ rightsAbolitionfounded Philadelphia FemaleAnti-Slavery Society in 1833She also helped fugitive slaves
77 I. Women and Reform (pages 409–410) Elizabeth Cady Stanton- very intelligent, daughter of NY judgeAbolitionistActive in temperance movementWomen’s rightsHusband and brother were also active
78 I. Women and Reform (pages 409–410) Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stanton met at World Antislavery Convention in LondonIronically not allowed to participate because they were womenElizabeth Cady Stanton helped organize 1st women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, NY
79 I. Women and Reform (pages 409–410) Seneca Falls Convention issued Declaration of Sentiments & ResolutionsDeclared that all men & women were equalCalled for end to discrimination against womenDemanded women’s suffrage, right to vote.
80 Obstacles Women FacedTradition - people believed woman’s role was in home taking care of family.Women - many women felt new freedoms also meant new responsibilities.Laws - many laws limited & restricted opportunities open to women.Religion – Many organized religions viewed women as subservient to men.
81 Women’s dress Amelia Bloomer advocated wearing of “bloomer costume” In May of 1851 Amelia Bloomer introduced Susan B. Anthony to Elizabeth Cady Stanton.Stanton said, "I liked herimmediately and why I did notinvite her home to dinner withme I do not know."
82 Ted Aub sculpted life-sized bronze figures "When Anthony Met Stanton“ Ted Aub sculpted life-sized bronze figures "When Anthony Met Stanton“. As in real-life, Bloomer & Stanton are wearing "Bloomer Costume" which bloomer publicized in "The Lily."
84 I. Women and Reform (pages 409–410) 1800s women’s rights movement grewSusan B. Anthony called for:= payCollege training for girlsCoeducation- teaching boys & girls together.Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton led women’s rights movement.
85 II. Progress by American Women (pages 411–413) Industrial Revolution began to change economic roles of men & women (esp. in North).Men took care of work outside homeWomen took care of home & familyOutside world too dangerousWoman’s role in homeBetter religious role modelsMagazine articles and novels supported view of women staying at home
86 II. Progress by American Women (pages 411–413) Education reform leaders began to call for more educational opportunities for women.Emma Willard estab. Troy Female Seminary in NYTaught girls “boys’ subjects”Mary Lyon estab. Mt Holyoke Female Seminary in MASome male colleges began admitting women
87 II. Progress by American Women (pages 411–413) During 1800s women made some gains in area of marriage & property laws. Some states:Allowed women to own propertyTo share guardianship of their children jointly w/their husbandsTo divorce their husbands if they abused alcohol.
88 II. Progress by American Women (pages 411–413) Women began entering fields such as medicine & ministry in 1800s.Elizabeth Blackwellattended medical schoolgraduated 1st in classearned medical degree & became successful doctorset up medical school for women
89 Milestones in Women’s History Seneca Fall Conventionst woman ordained as minister in Protestant churchst woman on record to keep her name after marriageU. of IA 1st state school to admit womenst woman suffrage law in U.S. passedst time for women to serve on juriesst state to admit woman to bar (IA)
90 1872 - 1st women to register to vote in prez. election st women’s college founded- Smith’sst woman allowed to present to Supreme Courtst woman elected to US congress (MT)th Amend. gives women the vote in USst woman elected gov. of state (WY)st woman elected US senatorst battered women’s shelter opened (IL)st time U.S. military is integrated (women-only branches are eliminated)st woman on Supreme Court- Sandra Day O’Connor
91 States Ratifying the 19th Amendment In 1919, there were 48 state in USA.To get required 3/4th majority for ratification, 19th Amendment needed approval of at least 36 states.