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The Constitution 2013 U.S. History. Timeline 2 nd Continental Congress meets: Declaration of Independence is signed Yorktown: British are defeated and.

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Presentation on theme: "The Constitution 2013 U.S. History. Timeline 2 nd Continental Congress meets: Declaration of Independence is signed Yorktown: British are defeated and."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Constitution 2013 U.S. History

2 Timeline 2 nd Continental Congress meets: Declaration of Independence is signed Yorktown: British are defeated and American Revolution ends Constitutional Convention begins in Philadelphia, PA George Washington is elected 1 st President of the U.S.

3 1777: Articles of Confederation The Articles created a loose association of states. States retain sovereignty No chief executive office Congress consists of 1 representative per state

4 Articles of Confederation One accomplishment was the passage of a law establishing a process for admitting new states into the Union: The Northwest Ordinance established procedures for admitting new states once territories reached a certain population.

5 Articles of Confederation Founders considered the lack of a national executive and judiciary a strength because they feared a strong central government. However, the Articles had many serious shortcomings.

6 1787: Constitutional Convention The convention opened in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation. Leaders realized that a new document should be written and that compromise would be necessary.

7 Constitutional Convention Great Compromise: delegates settled the issue of state representation in Congress. It set up a bicameral legislature. The powers of the national government were limited.

8 Constitutional Convention Large states wanted representation based on the amount of population. Small-state delegates demanded that all states be equally represented in both houses.

9 Constitutional Convention Three-Fifths Compromise: Southern states wanted to include slaves in the population count. This compromise resolved the conflict over counting slaves for purposes of taxation and representation.

10 Federalists vs. Antifederalists Major controversy was over the issue of ratification on the new Constitution. The Federalist Papers was written in support of ratification. Federalism deals with division of power between the national and state governments.

11 Federalists vs. Antifederalists Antifederalists were worried that states would lose power in the new government. Federalists argued that the Constitution should be ratified because it had features that prevented the abuse of government powers.

12 Federalists vs. Antifederalists Federalist Alexander Hamilton assured the antifederalists that states will enjoy important powers under the Constitution. Three separate branches of government prevented any one branch from gaining too much power.

13 Federalists vs. Antifederalists Federalist James Madison composed the first drafts of the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights and earned the nickname "Father of the Constitution." He later became the 4 th President of the United States.

14 U.S. Constitution: Checks & Balances The Constitution provides for checks and balances to prevent any one branch of government from becoming too powerful. Ex: The Senate approves the President’s nomination to the Supreme Court.

15 U.S. Constitution: Checks & Balances Checks & balances is used today: “The nation deserves and I will select a Supreme Court Justice that Americans can be proud of. The nation deserves a dignified process of confirmation in the U.S. Senate, characterized by fair treatment, a fair hearing and a fair vote.” –President George W. Bush, 2005

16 U.S. Constitution: Separation of Powers Three separate branches of government prevented any one branch from gaining too much power. Powers divided into branches: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial

17 U.S. Constitution and DOI The Constitution addressed grievances outlined in the Declaration of Independence: it provides that all taxes must be approved by Congress.

18 U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights The Constitution is a living document. As the nation’s needs change, revisions to the Constitution are required. The 1 st ten amendments guaranteeing individual protections were addressed with the Bill of Rights.

19 Bill of Rights 4 th Amendment: guarantees freedom from unreasonable searches 6 th Amendment: guarantees right of trial by jury 10 th Amendment: outlines concept of limited government

20 Quiz: Test Your Knowledge!

21 Test Your Knowledge! What was the significance of the Northwest Ordinance? It prevented the extension of slavery into the Louisiana Territory It established procedures for the admission of territories into the Union It established a loose confederation of newly independent states

22 Test Your Knowledge! What was the significance of the Northwest Ordinance? It prevented the extension of slavery into the Louisiana Territory It established procedures for the admission of territories into the Union It established a loose confederation of newly independent states

23 Test Your Knowledge! Which of the following was the result of the Great Compromise? Supreme Court Electoral college Amendment Process Bicameral Legislature

24 Test Your Knowledge! Which of the following was the result of the Great Compromise? Supreme Court Electoral college Amendment Process Bicameral Legislature

25 Test Your Knowledge! Between 1787 and 1789, a major controversy between the Federalists and Antifederalists focused primarily on ______. The issue of ratification of the Constitution Division of power among different levels of government Wisdom of creating a two-house legislature Expansion of slavery into the territories

26 Test Your Knowledge! Between 1787 and 1789, a major controversy between the Federalists and Antifederalists focused primarily on ______. The issue of ratification of the Constitution Division of power among different levels of government Wisdom of creating a two-house legislature Expansion of slavery into the territories

27 Test Your Knowledge! Why is the year 1787 significant to U.S. History? Articles of Confederation were repealed U.S. Constitution was written Poor Richard’s Almanack was first published Declaration of Independence was signed

28 Test Your Knowledge! Why is the year 1787 significant to U.S. History? Articles of Confederation were repealed U.S. Constitution was written Poor Richard’s Almanack was first published Declaration of Independence was signed

29 Test Your Knowledge! Thomas Jefferson demanded _____ when he said, “All tyranny needs to gain a foothold is for people of good conscience to remain silent.” Trial by jury Right to bear arms Freedom of religion Freedom of speech

30 Test Your Knowledge! Thomas Jefferson demanded _____ when he said, “All tyranny needs to gain a foothold is for people of good conscience to remain silent.” Trial by jury Right to bear arms Freedom of religion Freedom of speech

31 Test Your Knowledge! What is the title of the following list? States retain sovereignty No chief executive office Congress consists of 1 representative per state Declaration of Independence Federalist Papers Articles of Confederation Antifederalist writings

32 Test Your Knowledge! What is the title of the following list? States retain sovereignty No chief executive office Congress consists of 1 representative per state Declaration of Independence Federalist Papers Articles of Confederation Antifederalist writings

33 Test Your Knowledge! What historic document was written in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution? Magna Carta The Federalist Papers Mayflower Compact Declaration of Independence

34 Test Your Knowledge! What historic document was written in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution? Magna Carta The Federalist Papers Mayflower Compact Declaration of Independence

35 Test Your Knowledge! What is the purpose of checks-and- balances system in the U.S. Constitution? To expand the President’s treaty- making powers To divide power between the federal and state governments To prevent any one branch of the government from becoming too powerful

36 Test Your Knowledge! What is the purpose of checks-and- balances system in the U.S. Constitution? To expand the President’s treaty- making powers To divide power between the federal and state governments To prevent any one branch of the government from becoming too powerful

37 Test Your Knowledge! One accomplishment under the Articles of Confederation was the passage of a law establishing __________. A central banking system A process for admitting new states into the Union The President’s right to putdown rebellions The ability of Congress to tax the states effectively.

38 Test Your Knowledge! One accomplishment under the Articles of Confederation was the passage of a law establishing __________. A central banking system A process for admitting new states into the Union The President’s right to putdown rebellions The ability of Congress to tax the states effectively.

39 Test Your Knowledge! What was the key argument used by Federalists for ratification of the U.S. Constitution? It prohibited the power of the federal government to wage war. It provided for construction of a new capital in the South. It had features that prevented the abuse of government powers.

40 Test Your Knowledge! What was the key argument used by Federalists for ratification of the U.S. Constitution? It prohibited the power of the federal government to wage war. It provided for construction of a new capital in the South. It had features that prevented the abuse of government powers.

41 Test Your Knowledge! Which question at the Constitutional Convention was resolved by the “Great Compromise?” What formula should be used for Congressional representation? Who should control commerce and trade? How should the President be elected?

42 Test Your Knowledge! Which question at the Constitutional Convention was resolved by the “Great Compromise?” What formula should be used for Congressional representation? Who should control commerce and trade? How should the President be elected?

43 Test Your Knowledge! The principle of federalism deals with the division of power between the ________. President and Congress National and state governments Three branches of government Senate and House of Representatives

44 Test Your Knowledge! The principle of federalism deals with the division of power between the ________. President and Congress National and state governments Three branches of government Senate and House of Representatives

45 Test Your Knowledge! Why did the framers of the Constitution create three separate branches of the national government? To insure the legislative branch was bicameral To make sure all laws were approved by the Supreme Court To prevent any one branch of government from gaining too much power

46 Test Your Knowledge! Why did the framers of the Constitution create three separate branches of the national government? To insure the legislative branch was bicameral To make sure all laws were approved by the Supreme Court To prevent any one branch of government from gaining too much power

47 Test Your Knowledge! Why did some founders consider the lack of a national executive to be a strength of the Articles of Confederation? They feared a strong central government They were willing to risk tyranny for an effective national government They feared the threat of a foreign invasion. They desired to copy the British monarchy.

48 Test Your Knowledge! Why did some founders consider the lack of a national executive to be a strength of the Articles of Confederation? They feared a strong central government They were willing to risk tyranny for an effective national government They feared the threat of a foreign invasion. They desired to copy the British monarchy.

49 Test Your Knowledge! The “Three-fifths Compromise” was included in the U.S. Constitution in order to resolve a conflict over the ___________. Number of votes needed to approve a treaty in the Senate. Counting of enslaved persons for purposes of taxation and representation. Reimbursement of plantation owners for runaway slaves.

50 Test Your Knowledge! The “Three-fifths Compromise” was included in the U.S. Constitution in order to resolve a conflict over the ___________. Number of votes needed to approve a treaty in the Senate. Counting of enslaved persons for purposes of taxation and representation. Reimbursement of plantation owners for runaway slaves.

51 Test Your Knowledge! Which grievance in the Declaration of Independence was later addressed by the U.S. Constitution? Creating a process for the admission of new states Providing that all taxes must be approved by Congress Enacting a law to allow the President to declare war Appointing federal judges for a limited term

52 Test Your Knowledge! Which grievance in the Declaration of Independence was later addressed by the U.S. Constitution? Creating a process for the admission of new states Providing that all taxes must be approved by Congress Enacting a law to allow the President to declare war Appointing federal judges for a limited term

53 Test Your Knowledge! Which describes a characteristic of the national government established by the U.S. Constitution? The powers of the national government were limited. The Supreme Court had the authority to create lower courts. The President had exclusive control over all government activities.

54 Test Your Knowledge! Which describes a characteristic of the national government established by the U.S. Constitution? The powers of the national government were limited. The Supreme Court had the authority to create lower courts. The President had exclusive control over all government activities.

55 Test Your Knowledge! In general, the Articles of Confederation ___________. Would carry the nation into the future Had many serious shortcomings Gave the government sufficient powers Created a strong navy to protect against foreign invasion

56 Test Your Knowledge! In general, the Articles of Confederation ___________. Would carry the nation into the future Had many serious shortcomings Gave the government sufficient powers Created a strong navy to protect against foreign invasion

57 Test Your Knowledge! 2 nd “…the right of the people…” 3 rd “without the consent of the owner..” 8 th Nor cruel and unusual punishments…” What do these amendments have in common? They protect individuals against actions by the federal government. They promote the idea of equal rights for minorities They strengthen the power of the federal government.

58 Test Your Knowledge! 2 nd “…the right of the people…” 3 rd “without the consent of the owner..” 8 th Nor cruel and unusual punishments…” What do these amendments have in common? They protect individuals against actions by the federal government. They promote the idea of equal rights for minorities They strengthen the power of the federal government.

59 Test Your Knowledge! Which Constitutional principle is described? “All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress…” “The executive power shall be vested….President” The judicial power…shall be vested… Supreme Court” Checks and balances “unwritten constitution” Federalism Separation of powers

60 Test Your Knowledge! Which Constitutional principle is described? “All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress…” “The executive power shall be vested….President” The judicial power…shall be vested… Supreme Court” Checks and balances “unwritten constitution” Federalism Separation of powers

61 Test Your Knowledge! Large states argued that representation in Congress should be based on its population. Small states argued that each state should have an equal vote. How was this argument resolved? Commerce Compromise Three-Fifths Compromise Great Compromise Missouri Compromise

62 Test Your Knowledge! Large states argued that representation in Congress should be based on its population. Small states argued that each state should have an equal vote. How was this argument resolved? Commerce Compromise Three-Fifths Compromise Great Compromise Missouri Compromise

63 Test Your Knowledge! What do these newspaper headlines demonstrate? “New Congress to Have Two Houses” “Slaves to Count as Three-Fifths of a Person” “No Tax on Goods Sent out of the Country” President and Congress would have equal powers Framers of the Constitution were able to compromise on important issues States with large populations controlled the outcome of the Convention

64 Test Your Knowledge! What do these newspaper headlines demonstrate? “New Congress to Have Two Houses” “Slaves to Count as Three-Fifths of a Person” “No Tax on Goods Sent out of the Country” President and Congress would have equal powers Framers of the Constitution were able to compromise on important issues States with large populations controlled the outcome of the Convention

65 Test Your Knowledge! Which best describes the purpose of the amending process? The nation’s needs change, requiring revision to the Constitution. The government’s power must be limited or it will become tyrannical. The Constitution was created by the states to serve the states.

66 Test Your Knowledge! Which best describes the purpose of the amending process? The nation’s needs change, requiring revision to the Constitution. The government’s power must be limited or it will become tyrannical. The Constitution was created by the states to serve the states.

67 Test Your Knowledge! The Americans colonists used the slogan, “No taxation without representation,” to express their belief in the need for _____________. Economic interdependence Mercantilism The consent of the governed Parliamentary supremacy

68 Test Your Knowledge! The Americans colonists used the slogan, “No taxation without representation,” to express their belief in the need for _____________. Economic interdependence Mercantilism The consent of the governed Parliamentary supremacy

69 Test Your Knowledge! “For imposing taxes without our consent..” from the Declaration of Independence refers to which of the following actions taken by the British government? Passage of the Stamp Act in 1765 Enforcement of the Quartering Act 1774 Enforcement of the Intolerable Acts in 1774 Establishment of the Proclamation Line in 1763

70 Test Your Knowledge! “For imposing taxes without our consent..” from the Declaration of Independence refers to which of the following actions taken by the British government? Passage of the Stamp Act in 1765 Enforcement of the Quartering Act 1774 Enforcement of the Intolerable Acts in 1774 Establishment of the Proclamation Line in 1763

71 Test Your Knowledge! Victory: ___________ Turning Point: ______ Saratoga…Yorktown Lexington…Saratoga Yorktown…Saratoga Trenton…Yorktown

72 Test Your Knowledge! Victory: ___________ Turning Point: ______ Saratoga…Yorktown Lexington…Saratoga Yorktown…Saratoga Trenton…Yorktown

73 Test Your Knowledge! Which amendment to the Bill of Rights outlines the concept of limited government? Third Amendment Second Amendment Tenth Amendment Seventh Amendment

74 Test Your Knowledge! Which amendment to the Bill of Rights outlines the concept of limited government? Third Amendment Second Amendment Tenth Amendment Seventh Amendment

75 Test Your Knowledge! Which amendment to the Bill of Rights addresses the right of trial by jury? Third Amendment Ninth Amendment Sixth Amendment Eighth Amendment

76 Test Your Knowledge! Which amendment to the Bill of Rights addresses the right of trial by jury? Third Amendment Ninth Amendment Sixth Amendment Eighth Amendment

77 Test Your Knowledge! List in order: I.Revolutionary War Ends II.Philadelphia Convention Begins III.Second Continental Congress Meets IV.1 st U.S. President elected I, II, III, IV III, I, II, IV III, I, IV, II I, III, II, IV

78 Test Your Knowledge! List in order: I.Revolutionary War Ends II.Philadelphia Convention Begins III.Second Continental Congress Meets IV.1 st U.S. President elected I, II, III, IV III, I, II, IV III, I, IV, II I, III, II, IV

79 Test Your Knowledge! Which right is guaranteed protection by the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution? Freedom to own property Freedom from unreasonable searches Right to a trial by jury of peers

80 Test Your Knowledge! Which right is guaranteed protection by the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution? Freedom to own property Freedom from unreasonable searches Right to a trial by jury of peers

81 Test Your Knowledge! Which action is an example of the system of checks and balances? Senate approves the President’s nomination to the Supreme Court. An individual pays both state and federal income tax. The House of Representatives votes to expel one of its members.

82 Test Your Knowledge! Which action is an example of the system of checks and balances? Senate approves the President’s nomination to the Supreme Court. An individual pays both state and federal income tax. The House of Representatives votes to expel one of its members.

83 Test Your Knowledge! “The proposed Constitution, far from abolishing state governments, makes them an essential part of the national government….in their possession certain important government powers.” -Alexander Hamilton With which of the following would Hamilton agree? State governments would be abolished by federal government States will lack representation in the Senate States will enjoy important powers.

84 Test Your Knowledge! “The proposed Constitution, far from abolishing state governments, makes them an essential part of the national government….in their possession certain important government powers.” -Alexander Hamilton With which of the following would Hamilton agree? State governments would be abolished by federal government States will lack representation in the Senate States will enjoy important powers.

85 Good Luck on Your Test!


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