2Seven principles found in the U. S. Constitution: separation of powerchecks and balancespopular sovereigntyrepublicanismLimited governmentFederalismIndividual rights
3Separation of PowerThe power of the national government is divided into three branches.Legislative Branchmakes lawsExecutive Branchenforces lawsjudicial Branchinterprets laws
4Checks and BalancesThe three branches check or limit each other to prevent one branch from becoming too powerful.
5Legislative Branch Executive Branch Judicial Branch Congress can remove the presidentLegislative BranchExecutive BranchThe President can veto laws passed by CongressSupreme Court can declare a law passed by Congress unconstitutionalSupreme Court can declare actions of the president unconstitutionalThe President appoints Supreme Court judgesCongress approves and removes Supreme Court judgesJudicial Branch
6Popular SovereigntyThe idea that people hold the final authority in government.people rule
7RepublicanismThe people elect representatives and give them the responsibility to make laws.
8Limited GovernmentThe U. S. Constitution created a strong national government, but the power was limited in order to prevent abuse of power.By creating limited government, they made sure the government would have only those powers given by the people.
9FederalismPower is shared between a strong national government and the fifty states.The powers not delegated (given) to the national government are reserved (given) to the states.
10FederalismThe powers not delegated (given) to the national government are reserved (given) to the states.
11FederalismPower is divided between state and national governments
12Individual RightsRights that are given to the people in the Bill of Rights and other amendments to the Constitution.Some of these rights include freedom of speech, freedom of religion and the right to trial by jury.
14After four long and difficult months, the delegates at the Constitutional Convention produced a new constitution (U. S. Constitution) in 1787.The new constitution created a stronger national government.
15Timeline Articles of Confederation Shays’s Rebellion Constitutional ConventionU. S.Constitution
16What will complete the diagram? U. S. Constitution
17Roots of the Constitution Magna Carta =Mayflower Compact =House of Burgesses =Declaration of Independence =Trial by jurySelf governmentRepresentative governmentLife, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness
18These examples of colonial democracy helped pave the way for the writing of U. S. Constitution
19Articles of Confederation U. S. Constitution1st Constitutionweak national governmentone branchno U. S. presidentsno federal courts2nd Constitutionstrong national governmentthree branchesU. S. presidentsSupreme Court
20Approving the Constitution Before the Constitution could go into effect, nine states needed to ratify (approve) it.Americans discussed the arguments for and against the new constitution.Supporters of the new U. S. Constitution were called FederalistsFederalists: George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay.
21James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay wrote a series of essays called the Federalists Papers to explain and defend the Constitution.The Federalists Papers were used to convince citizens to support ratification (approval) of the Constitution.
22F E D E R A L I S T SJames Madison Alexander Hamilton John Jay
23People who opposed (were against) ratification (approval) of the new U People who opposed (were against) ratification (approval) of the new U. S. Constitution were called Antifederalists (Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry).Antifederalists were against the constitution because it lacked a bill of rights (a list of rights) to protect individual freedoms.The Antifederalists believed that the federal (national) government should have limited power.