Presentation on theme: " Rushworth Kidder wrote a book entitled, Shared Values for a Troubled World He interviewed people in 16 different countries He identified 8 values."— Presentation transcript:
Rushworth Kidder wrote a book entitled, Shared Values for a Troubled World He interviewed people in 16 different countries He identified 8 values universal to all 16 countries How accurate is his data? There are 192 recognized countries by the UN and countless ethnicities worldwide.
FAIRNESS FREEDOM LOVE RESPECT FOR LIFE RESPONSIBILITY TOLERANCE TRUTH UNITY
DID ALL THE COUNTRIES DEFINE THE VALUE IN THE SAME WAY? What are some words that you see as hard to define across cultures? Why?
CULTURAL UNIVERSALS ARE DIFFERENT FROM UNIVERSAL VALUES CULTURAL UNIVERSALS-NEEDS THAT ARE BASIC TO A GROUP OF PEOPLE SO THAT THEY DEVELOP CERTAIN FEATURES TO ENSURE THEIR FULFILLMENT. CAN A CULTURAL UNIVERSAL TRAIT BE A RESOURCE?
Cultural Anthropologist George Murdock examined hundreds of different cultures in an attempt to determine general traits common to all cultures. He compiled more than 65 traits some include: Body adornment, cooking, dancing, family, feasting, forms of greeting, funeral ceremonies, gift giving, housing, language, medicine, music, myths, folklore, religion, sports, and toolmaking. Did he find that all cultures had the same ways of carrying these traits out?
What factors account for the many cultural differences between two societies? You may have marriage in both but in one arranged marriages are commonplace, and in the other marriage occurs between lovers. How do we evaluate other cultures? Ethnocentrism Cultural Relativism
SOCIAL NORMS SHARED RULES OF CONDUCT THAT TELL PEOPLE HOW TO ACT IN SPECIFIC SITUATIONS SOCIETIES NEED NORMS HOW ARE THEY ENFORCED?
NORMS- SHARED RULES OF CONDUCT FOLKWAYSMORESLAWS
1. INTERNALIZATION-to internalize a norm, to make it part of your personality, conditioning a person to society’s expectations
2. SANCTIONS-rewards and or punishments used to enforce conformity to norms Positive-action that rewards behavior Negative-punishment to enforce conformity Formal-reward or punishment by a formal organization Informal-spontaneous expression of disapproval or approval by an individual or group
SOCIAL CONTROL IS THE ENFORCING OF NORMS THROUGH INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL MEANS INTERNAL: SELF CONTROL-LEARNED THROUGH INTERNALIZATION OF NORMS EXTERNAL: OUTSIDE FORCES, ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS CAN A SOCIETY FUNCTION WITHOUT AN EFFECTIVE SYSTEM OF SOCIAL CONTROL?