2WORLD VALUESRushworth Kidder wrote a book entitled, Shared Values for a Troubled WorldHe interviewed people in 16 different countriesHe identified 8 values universal to all 16 countriesHow accurate is his data? There are 192 recognized countries by the UN and countless ethnicities worldwide.
316 Countries 8 values FAIRNESS FREEDOM LOVE RESPECT FOR LIFE RESPONSIBILITYTOLERANCETRUTHUNITY
4VARIABLE IN HIS STUDYDID ALL THE COUNTRIES DEFINE THE VALUE IN THE SAME WAY?What are some words that you see as hard to define across cultures? Why?
5CULTURAL UNIVERSALSCULTURAL UNIVERSALS ARE DIFFERENT FROM UNIVERSAL VALUESCULTURAL UNIVERSALS-NEEDS THAT ARE BASIC TO A GROUP OF PEOPLE SO THAT THEY DEVELOP CERTAIN FEATURES TO ENSURE THEIR FULFILLMENT.CAN A CULTURAL UNIVERSAL TRAIT BE A RESOURCE?
6CULTURAL UNIVERSALSCultural Anthropologist George Murdock examined hundreds of different cultures in an attempt to determine general traits common to all cultures. He compiled more than 65 traits some include:Body adornment, cooking, dancing, family, feasting, forms of greeting, funeral ceremonies, gift giving, housing, language, medicine, music, myths, folklore, religion, sports, and toolmaking.Did he find that all cultures had the same ways of carrying these traits out?
7CULTURAL VALUESWhat factors account for the many cultural differences between two societies?You may have marriage in both but in one arranged marriages are commonplace, and in the other marriage occurs between lovers.How do we evaluate other cultures?EthnocentrismCultural Relativism
8HOW DO VALUES BECOME PART OF WHO YOU ARE? SOCIAL NORMSSHARED RULES OF CONDUCT THAT TELL PEOPLE HOW TO ACT IN SPECIFIC SITUATIONSSOCIETIES NEED NORMSHOW ARE THEY ENFORCED?
9NORMS-SHARED RULES OF CONDUCT NORMS OF a societyNORMS-SHARED RULES OF CONDUCTFOLKWAYSMORESLAWS
102 distinct ways norms are enforced 1. INTERNALIZATION-to internalize a norm, to make it part of your personality, conditioning a person to society’s expectations
112 distinct ways norms are enforced 2. SANCTIONS-rewards and or punishments used to enforce conformity to normsPositive-action that rewards behaviorNegative-punishment to enforce conformityFormal-reward or punishment by a formal organizationInformal-spontaneous expression of disapproval or approval by an individual or group
12SOCIAL CONTROLSOCIAL CONTROL IS THE ENFORCING OF NORMS THROUGH INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL MEANSINTERNAL: SELF CONTROL-LEARNED THROUGH INTERNALIZATION OF NORMSEXTERNAL: OUTSIDE FORCES, ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORSCAN A SOCIETY FUNCTION WITHOUT AN EFFECTIVE SYSTEM OF SOCIAL CONTROL?