3What is Culture?Culture consists of all the shared products of human groups. These products include both physical objects and the beliefs, values, and behaviors shared by the group.
4Material CulturePhysical objects used by a group is known as Material Culture.
5Non-Material CultureAbstract human creations form the Non- Material Culture.This includes: beliefs, family patterns, language, rules, ideas, etc.
6Culture vs. Society All the shared products of a society A group of interdependent people that have organized in a way to share common culture.
7Culture is both Learned and Shared Components of CultureCulture is both Learned and Shared
8TechnologyConsists of items and rules for using those items.
9SymbolsAnything that represents something else. The basis of human culture.
10Language The organization of both the spoken and written word. Language of the San
11ValuesShared beliefs of what is right and wrong, good or bad. Values determine the character of the people.
12NormsShared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations.Folkways: describe socially acceptable behavior that does not have great moral significance.Mores: Great moral significance – developed into laws
13Examining CultureCulture is constantly changing, it is considered to be dynamic rather than static.
14Culture TraitsThe simplest level of culture. An individual tool, act or belief. (i.e. throwing a football)
15Cultural ComplexesA cluster of interrelated cultural traits. (i.e. A game of football)
16Cultural PatternsThe combination of various cultural complexes (i.e. Football, Basketball, Soccer are Sports)
17Cultural VariationAll cultures are different, yet some things exist amongst all cultures. These are known as cultural universals.Some examples of cultural universals:Cooking, dancing, family, feasting, funeral ceremonies, housing, language, music, medicine, religion, sports, toolmaking.Although these universals occur everywhere, there is great variance between groups.
18Families vary by culture Largest family in the world: 39 wives, 94 children 33 grandchildrenFamilies vary by cultureCountry with the largest families: Gambia average of 8.3 kids per family.
19Typical American Family 2.6 kids in a typical American FamilyThe Duggar Family of 18 kids and counting2.6 kids in a typical
20Studying VariationIn order to study different cultures, social scientists must be aware of bias
21EthnocentrismA tendency to view ones own culture and group as superior to other groups.Video
22Cultural RelativismThe belief that all cultures need to be judged by their own standards rather than comparing them to other cultures.
23Variation within Societies Subcultures – groups that although joined to a larger group, have their own cultural features that are not part of the larger culture. Many subcultures exist in the United States due to immigration and region.
24CountercultureGroups that challenge and refuse to conform with the accepted culture of the main group.