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Chapter 18---Psychological Disorders

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1 Chapter 18---Psychological Disorders

2 What are Psychological disorders?
Behaviors patterns or mental process that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person’s ability to cope with everyday life. 1/3 of all adults have experienced some type of psychological disorder.

3 Identifying and symptoms

4 What is normal? What is average for most people?
Laughing/ too much at nothing.

5 Problems with defining psych disorders
The behavior of the majority is not always wise or healthy Some Atypical behaviors are eccentric (artistic geniuses) rather than indicative of a disorder People with psych disorders usually do not differ much from “normal” people

6 Symptoms Typically what is most common not a good guide

7 MaladaptivE impairs an individual’s ability to function in everyday life. hazardous to oneself or others alcohol and drug use

8 Emotional discomfort anxiety and depression
feelings of hopelessness, extreme sadness, worthlessness, Guilt, thought of suicide severe emotional discomfort

9 Socially unacceptable behavior
violates society’s accepted norms cultural differences a problem

10 Classifying psychological disorders
Change with each edition of the DSM or diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders The 3rd DSM edition in 1980 psychological disorders have been categorized on the basis of observable signs and symptoms rather than presumed causes.

11 Answer these questions
Identify three problems with defining normal behaviors as the behavior displayed by the majority of people. How have the criteria for the classisification of psychological disorders been arranged since 1980’s? Give an example of a feeling or a behavior that would be considered normal in one circumstance but a sign of psychological disorder in a different circumstance.

12 Chapter 18 section 2 Anxiety Disorders

13 Anxiety disorders A state of dread or uneasiness in response to a vague/ imagined danger

14 Characterized by Persistent, excessive, irrational fear, nervousness,
concern for lost of control, inability to relax

15 Physical signs- trembling, sweating, rapid heart rate,
shortness of breath, increase blood pressure, flushed face, feeling of faintness/ light head

16 Phobic disorders (most common)
Persistent, excessive, irrational fear, of a object or situation Most common Types zoophobia—fear of animals claustrophobia—enclosed spaces acrophobia---heights arachnophobia---spiders

17 Social phobia- fear of social situations
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia (50-80% of phobic individuals) Panic attack (recurring and unexpected) a short period of intense fear (1 min – few hours) shortness of breath, dizziness, rapid hart rate, sweating, choking, nausea, trembling, shaking, going to die for no apparent reason

18 Generalized anxiety disorder Agoraphobia (common among adults)
fear of being in places/ situations in which Impossible to escape have panic attack by avoiding behaviors excessive or unrealistic worry about life circumstances that lasts for at least 6 months common anxiety disorder typically focus on finances, work, interpersonal problems, accidents or illness Generalized anxiety disorder Agoraphobia (common among adults)

19 Obsessive- Compulsive disorder (OCD)
Obsessions -- unwanted thoughts ideas or mental images. Compulsions---- repetitive ritual behaviors cleaner, checkers, washers, Hoarders, repeaters, orderers. Obsessive- Compulsive disorder (OCD)

20 Post-traumatic stress disorder---caused by a traumatic experience.
flash back, nightmares, numbness of feelings, avoidance increased tension causes- rape, severe child abuse, assault, serve accident, airplane crash, natural disasters, war experiences

21 Psychological view Psychoanalytic view
Anxiety is the result of forbidden childhood urges that have been repressed. When surfaced may become obsessions and compulsive behaviors

22 Learning view Cognitive
Phobias are conditioned or learned in childhood May occur from traumatic events People make themselves feel anxious by responding negatively to most situations Feel helpless to control what happens to them

23 Biological views Interaction factors-
Heredity plays a role in most psychological disorders Interaction factors- both bio and psych together

24 Section 2 review How does anxiety differ from fear?
Describe the relationship between panic disorder and agoraphobia. Explain why studies of twins are important for determining whether a disorder has a biological basis.




28 1. Dissociative amnesia Characterized by sudden lost of memory following a stressful or traumatic event Typically can’t remember any events that occurred for a certain period of time surrounding the traumatic event May forget all prior experiences, personal information, own name, family and friends May last a few hours or years No biologically explanation.

29 2. Dissociative Fugue Characterized by forgetting personal information and past events Taking on a new identity relocating from home and new career Usually follows a traumatic event When fugue ends will not remember anything during the fugue state

30 3.Dissociative Identity Disorder
Formerly called multiple personality disorder Existence of 2 or more personalities Personalities may or may not be aware of each other Personality: different (age, sex, health) Typically have suffered severe physical, sexual, and/or psychological abuse.

31 Depersonalization Disorders
Feeling of detachment from one’s mental processes or body. Feeling outside of your body/ observing yourself Common with other disorders Stressful event

32 Explaining Dissociative Disorders

33 Psychological view Dissociate in order to prepress unacceptable urges
Dissociative amnesia or fugue – forgets the disturbing urges Dissociative identity –develops- new personalities to take responsibility Depersonalization-goes outside of self away from the turmoil within

34 Learning View Have learned not to think about disturbing events in order to avoid shame, guilt, and pain Dissociate themselves from stressful event Reinforced by reduces anxiety when trauma is forgotten

35 Cognitive / biological view
No complete explanation as of yet At present there is no convincing evidence that either biological or genetic factors play a role

36 Section 3 questions 1.Describe the four dissociative disorders. 2. In some cultures people are encouraged to go into trance like states. Should this type of dissociation be considered a sign of a psychological disorder? Why or why not?

37 Chapter 18 section 4 Somatoform Disorders

38 Somatoform Disorders Expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms Psychological problem along with physical (paralysis)

39 Malingering The conscious attempt to FAKE an illness in order to avoid work, school, or other responsibilities People with somatoform disorders do not fake their illness. Honestly feel pain and paralysis

40 6 Types of Somatoform Disorders
2 most common Conversion disorder and Hypochondria

41 Conversion Disorder Experience change in or loss of physical functioning in a major part of the body No known medical explanation Patient show little or no concern about their symptoms.

42 hypochondria Person’s unrealistic preoccupation with thoughts of illness or disease. Maintains their erroneous belief despite medical doctor

43 Explaining Somatoform Disorders
Psychological view Primarily psychological Repressing emotions associated with forbidden urges/ expressed in physical symptoms Compromise unconscious need to express feelings and fear of expressing them

44 Biological view Indications that biological and genetic factors involved.

45 Section 4 Define malingering. How does somatization differ from malingering? How do conversion disorder and hypochondriasis differ? How do you think learning theorists might explain somatoform disorders? Do you agree with this type of explanation? Why or Why not?

46 Section 5 Mood Disorders

47 Normal ups and downs Everyone experience life's ups/downs
Some people experience mood changes that seem inappropriate for or inconsistent with the situation to which they are responding. Life is good= sadness Elated for no apparent reason Abnormal moods like these, you may have a mood disorder.

48 2 general categories Depression Bipolar disorder
Feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, and great sadness Bipolar disorder Cycles of mood changes Depression----wild elation

49 7 types of mood disorders
divided into Depressive and bipolar disorders

50 Major Depression-most common
Must experience at least 5 of the following 9 symptoms for 2 wks/every day Depressed mood for most of the day Loss of interest pleasure in all things Weight loss/ gain Sleep more / less Change in physical and emotional reactions Fatigue/ loss of energy Feeling worthless/ guilty Inability to concentrate/ make decisions Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide

51 severely depressed Consumed by feelings of worthlessness of guilt
Calls for immediate treatment 15% or more eventually commit suicide.

52 Bipolar disorder/ or manic depression
Dramatic ups and downs in mood Period of mania or extreme excitement Hyperactivity and chaotic behavior change to Depression very quickly no apparent reason Traits Inflated self-esteem Inability to sit still Pressure to keep talking and switching from topic to topic Racing thoughts Difficulty concentrating

53 Manic phase- very disruptive
Highly excited Act silly Argumentative Delusions about their superior abilities Others jealous of them Hallucination hearing imaginary voices Seeing things that are not there Impulsive behaviors Quitting their jobs to pursue wild dreams Spending sprees Foolish business investments

54 Explaining Mood Disorders
Psychological View Internalizes anger- directs to themselves Biological view Has a genetic basis( chemical imbalance) 25 % have family members who have moods disorders Learning View Learned helplessness Cognitive View Habitual style of explaining life events based on prior experiences

55 Section 5 What is the difference between depression and bipolar disorder? List five symptoms of major depression. Describe and explain self-esteem, self- efficacy and expectancy from the perspective of attribution theory.

56 Section 6 Schizophrenia

57 Schizophrenia Considered the most serious
Typically Appears in young adulthood May occur suddenly Characterized by - loss of contact with reality Linked to geneitcs No cure There is effective treatment

58 symptoms Hallucinations Delusions Thought disorders Auditory (voices)
delusions of grandeur (superior to others) Persecution (paranoid) Speech( disorganized confused) Social withdraw Loss of social skills Loss of normal emotional responsiveness

59 Types of Schizophrenia
Paranoid Delusion of auditory hallucinations/ single theme Grandeur-Jealousy- persecution-CIA after them Disorganized Incoherent in their thought/ speech/delusions/ hallucinations/emotionless/ inappropriate emotions Catatonic Disturbance of movement/ slow/ stupor switching to agitation/ holds body positions

60 Explaining schizophrenia
Psychological View Overwhelming of the Ego by urges from the ID Conflict fantasies confused with reality Biological View A brains disorder/ frontal lobe Bio risks- heredity complications during pregnancy and birth

61 Multi-factorial model of schizophrenia
Biological and psychological factors interact Genetics create a vulnerability + trauma could = schizophrenia Once developed family environment can negatively affect the disorder Environmental factors alone does not lead to schizophrenia.

62 Section 6 List four symptoms of schizophrenia.
How does paranoid schizophrenia differ from disorganized schizophrenia? Explain why a multi-factorial model of schizophrenia may help in explaining the disorder?

63 Section 7 personality disorders

64 Personality disorders
Patterns of inflexible traits that disrupt social life and work/ distress the person Late in adolescence/ affect thought process, emotions and behavior Are enduring traits that are major components of the individual’s personality 1-10% of the population (Antisocial personality disorder)

65 Types of personality disorders 10 types---4 discussed
Paranoid personality disorder Distrustful-suspicious of others Difficult- argumentative, cold, aloof, view of reality is distorted (isolated life) Schizoid personality disorder No interest in relationship with people Lack normal emotional responsiveness No relationships-loners, few friends Do not have delusion or hallucinations

66 Antisocial personality disorder
Persistent behavior pattern of disregard/ violation of the right of other people Do not feel guilt or remorse Childhood---Hurt people and animals-steal Adulthood—recklessness, no job, breaks the law Avoidant personality disorder Want relationships/ fear and disapproval stops them Shy, withdrawn, Always have social problems/ phobias All encompassing condition

67 Explaining personality disorders
Psychological view Lack of guilt/ failure of developing a conscious or super ego Harsh punishment/ environment =lack of sense of guilt experiences influence learning how to relate to people No role models/ aggressive role models

68 Biological view Genetic\ runs in families
Frontal part of the brain/emotions Fewer neurons than other people Less responsive Less likely to show guilt for their misdeeds Less likely to fear punishment

69 Section 7 1.What is the major difference between personality disorders and other psychological disorders they may resemble? 2. Describe three behaviors of an individual with avoidant personality disorder. 3. Why do you think people with antisocial personality disorder are often more difficult to treat than people with other ypes of personality disorders?

70 assignment PAGE 432 Thinking critically (1-5) PAGE 433 Interpreting graphs (1+2) Analyzing primary sources (3+4)

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