2 What are Psychological disorders? Behaviors patterns or mental process that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person’s ability to cope with everyday life.1/3 of all adults have experienced some type of psychological disorder.
4 What is normal? What is average for most people? Laughing/ too much at nothing.
5 Problems with defining psych disorders The behavior of the majority is not always wise or healthySome Atypical behaviors are eccentric (artistic geniuses) rather than indicative of a disorderPeople with psych disorders usually do not differ much from “normal” people
6 SymptomsTypicallywhat is most commonnot a good guide
7 MaladaptivEimpairs an individual’s ability to function in everyday life.hazardous to oneself or othersalcohol and drug use
8 Emotional discomfort anxiety and depression feelings of hopelessness, extreme sadness, worthlessness,Guilt, thought of suicidesevere emotional discomfort
9 Socially unacceptable behavior violates society’s accepted normscultural differences a problem
10 Classifying psychological disorders Change with each edition of the DSM or diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disordersThe 3rd DSM edition in 1980 psychological disorders have been categorized on the basis of observable signs and symptoms rather than presumed causes.
11 Answer these questions Identify three problems with defining normal behaviors as the behavior displayed by the majority of people.How have the criteria for the classisification of psychological disorders been arranged since 1980’s?Give an example of a feeling or a behavior that would be considered normal in one circumstance but a sign of psychological disorder in a different circumstance.
13 Anxiety disordersA state of dread or uneasiness in response to a vague/ imagined danger
14 Characterized by Persistent, excessive, irrational fear, nervousness, concern for lost of control,inability to relax
15 Physical signs- trembling, sweating, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath,increase blood pressure,flushed face,feeling of faintness/ light head
16 Phobic disorders (most common) Persistent, excessive, irrational fear, of a object or situationMost common Typeszoophobia—fear of animalsclaustrophobia—enclosed spacesacrophobia---heightsarachnophobia---spiders
17 Social phobia- fear of social situations Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia (50-80% of phobic individuals)Panic attack (recurring and unexpected)a short period of intense fear (1 min – few hours)shortness of breath, dizziness, rapid hart rate, sweating, choking, nausea, trembling, shaking,going to die for no apparent reason
18 Generalized anxiety disorder Agoraphobia (common among adults) fear of being in places/ situations in which Impossible to escapehave panic attack by avoiding behaviorsexcessive or unrealistic worry about life circumstances that lasts for at least 6 monthscommon anxietydisordertypically focus on finances, work, interpersonal problems,accidents or illnessGeneralized anxiety disorderAgoraphobia (common among adults)
20 Post-traumatic stress disorder---caused by a traumatic experience. flash back, nightmares, numbness offeelings, avoidance increased tensioncauses- rape, severe child abuse, assault, serve accident, airplane crash, naturaldisasters, war experiences
21 Psychological view Psychoanalytic view Anxiety is the result of forbidden childhood urges that have been repressed.When surfaced may become obsessions and compulsive behaviors
22 Learning view Cognitive Phobias are conditioned or learned in childhoodMay occur from traumatic eventsPeople make themselves feel anxious by responding negatively to most situationsFeel helpless to control what happens to them
23 Biological views Interaction factors- Heredity plays a role in most psychological disordersInteraction factors-both bio and psych together
24 Section 2 review How does anxiety differ from fear? Describe the relationship between panic disorder and agoraphobia.Explain why studies of twins are important for determining whether a disorder has a biological basis.
26 DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS REFERS TO THE SEPARATION OF CERTAIN PERSONILITY COMPPONENTS OR MENTAL PROCESSES FORM CONSCIOUS THOUGHT.MAY LOSE THEIR MEMORY OF A PARTICULAR EVENT OR FORGET THEIR IDENTITYOCCURS WHEN FACED WITH URGES OR EXPERIENCES THAT VERY STRESSFUL
28 1. Dissociative amnesiaCharacterized by sudden lost of memory following a stressful or traumatic eventTypically can’t remember any events that occurred for a certain period of time surrounding the traumatic eventMay forget all prior experiences, personal information, own name, family and friendsMay last a few hours or yearsNo biologically explanation.
29 2. Dissociative FugueCharacterized by forgetting personal information and past eventsTaking on a new identity relocating from home and new careerUsually follows a traumatic eventWhen fugue ends will not remember anything during the fugue state
30 3.Dissociative Identity Disorder Formerly called multiple personality disorderExistence of 2 or more personalitiesPersonalities may or may not be aware of each otherPersonality: different (age, sex, health)Typically have suffered severe physical, sexual, and/or psychological abuse.
31 Depersonalization Disorders Feeling of detachment from one’s mental processes or body.Feeling outside of your body/ observing yourselfCommon with other disordersStressful event
33 Psychological view Dissociate in order to prepress unacceptable urges Dissociative amnesia or fugue – forgets the disturbing urgesDissociative identity –develops- new personalities to take responsibilityDepersonalization-goes outside of self away from the turmoil within
34 Learning ViewHave learned not to think about disturbing events in order to avoid shame, guilt, and painDissociate themselves from stressful eventReinforced by reduces anxiety when trauma is forgotten
35 Cognitive / biological view No complete explanation as of yetAt present there is no convincing evidence that either biological or genetic factors play a role
36 Section 3 questions1.Describe the four dissociative disorders. 2. In some cultures people are encouraged to go into trance like states. Should this type of dissociation be considered a sign of a psychological disorder? Why or why not?
38 Somatoform DisordersExpression of psychological distress through physical symptomsPsychological problem along with physical (paralysis)
39 MalingeringThe conscious attempt to FAKE an illness in order to avoid work, school, or other responsibilitiesPeople with somatoform disorders do not fake their illness.Honestly feel pain and paralysis
40 6 Types of Somatoform Disorders 2 most commonConversion disorder and Hypochondria
41 Conversion DisorderExperience change in or loss of physical functioning in a major part of the bodyNo known medical explanationPatient show little or no concern about their symptoms.
42 hypochondriaPerson’s unrealistic preoccupation with thoughts of illness or disease.Maintains their erroneous belief despite medical doctor
43 Explaining Somatoform Disorders Psychological viewPrimarily psychologicalRepressing emotions associated with forbidden urges/ expressed in physical symptomsCompromise unconscious need to express feelings and fear of expressing them
44 Biological viewIndications that biological and genetic factors involved.
45 Section 4Define malingering. How does somatization differ from malingering?How do conversion disorder and hypochondriasis differ?How do you think learning theorists might explain somatoform disorders? Do you agree with this type of explanation? Why or Why not?
47 Normal ups and downs Everyone experience life's ups/downs Some people experience mood changes that seem inappropriate for or inconsistent with the situation to which they are responding.Life is good= sadnessElated for no apparent reasonAbnormal moods like these, you may have a mood disorder.
48 2 general categories Depression Bipolar disorder Feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, and great sadnessBipolar disorderCycles of mood changesDepression----wild elation
49 7 types of mood disorders divided intoDepressiveandbipolar disorders
50 Major Depression-most common Must experience at least 5 of the following 9 symptoms for 2 wks/every dayDepressed mood for most of the dayLoss of interest pleasure in all thingsWeight loss/ gainSleep more / lessChange in physical and emotional reactionsFatigue/ loss of energyFeeling worthless/ guiltyInability to concentrate/ make decisionsRecurrent thoughts of death or suicide
51 severely depressed Consumed by feelings of worthlessness of guilt Calls for immediate treatment15% or more eventually commit suicide.
52 Bipolar disorder/ or manic depression Dramatic ups and downs in moodPeriod of mania or extreme excitementHyperactivity and chaotic behaviorchange to Depression very quickly no apparent reasonTraitsInflated self-esteemInability to sit stillPressure to keep talking and switching from topic to topicRacing thoughtsDifficulty concentrating
53 Manic phase- very disruptive Highly excitedAct sillyArgumentativeDelusions about their superior abilitiesOthers jealous of themHallucination hearing imaginary voicesSeeing things that are not thereImpulsive behaviorsQuitting their jobs to pursue wild dreamsSpending spreesFoolish business investments
54 Explaining Mood Disorders Psychological ViewInternalizes anger- directs to themselvesBiological viewHas a genetic basis( chemical imbalance)25 % have family members who have moods disordersLearning ViewLearned helplessnessCognitive ViewHabitual style of explaining life events based on prior experiences
55 Section 5What is the difference between depression and bipolar disorder?List five symptoms of major depression.Describe and explain self-esteem, self- efficacy and expectancy from the perspective of attribution theory.
57 Schizophrenia Considered the most serious Typically Appears in young adulthoodMay occur suddenlyCharacterized by- loss of contact with realityLinked to geneitcsNo cureThere is effective treatment
58 symptoms Hallucinations Delusions Thought disorders Auditory (voices) delusions of grandeur (superior to others)Persecution (paranoid)Speech( disorganized confused)Social withdrawLoss of social skillsLoss of normal emotional responsiveness
59 Types of Schizophrenia ParanoidDelusion of auditory hallucinations/ single themeGrandeur-Jealousy- persecution-CIA after themDisorganizedIncoherent in their thought/ speech/delusions/ hallucinations/emotionless/ inappropriate emotionsCatatonicDisturbance of movement/ slow/ stupor switching to agitation/ holds body positions
60 Explaining schizophrenia Psychological ViewOverwhelming of the Ego by urges from the IDConflict fantasies confused with realityBiological ViewA brains disorder/ frontal lobeBio risks- heredity complications during pregnancy and birth
61 Multi-factorial model of schizophrenia Biological and psychological factors interactGenetics create a vulnerability + trauma could = schizophreniaOnce developed family environment can negatively affect the disorderEnvironmental factors alone does not lead to schizophrenia.
62 Section 6 List four symptoms of schizophrenia. How does paranoid schizophrenia differ from disorganized schizophrenia?Explain why a multi-factorial model of schizophrenia may help in explaining the disorder?
64 Personality disorders Patterns of inflexible traits that disrupt social life and work/ distress the personLate in adolescence/ affect thought process, emotions and behaviorAre enduring traits that are major components of the individual’s personality1-10% of the population (Antisocial personality disorder)
65 Types of personality disorders 10 types---4 discussed Paranoid personality disorderDistrustful-suspicious of othersDifficult- argumentative, cold, aloof, view of reality is distorted (isolated life)Schizoid personality disorderNo interest in relationship with peopleLack normal emotional responsivenessNo relationships-loners, few friendsDo not have delusion or hallucinations
66 Antisocial personality disorder Persistent behavior pattern of disregard/ violation of the right of other peopleDo not feel guilt or remorseChildhood---Hurt people and animals-stealAdulthood—recklessness, no job, breaks the lawAvoidant personality disorderWant relationships/ fear and disapproval stops themShy, withdrawn,Always have social problems/ phobiasAll encompassing condition
67 Explaining personality disorders Psychological viewLack of guilt/ failure of developing a conscious or super egoHarsh punishment/ environment =lack of sense of guiltexperiences influence learning how to relate to peopleNo role models/ aggressive role models
68 Biological view Genetic\ runs in families Frontal part of the brain/emotionsFewer neurons than other peopleLess responsiveLess likely to show guilt for their misdeedsLess likely to fear punishment
69 Section 71.What is the major difference between personality disorders and other psychological disorders they may resemble? 2. Describe three behaviors of an individual with avoidant personality disorder. 3. Why do you think people with antisocial personality disorder are often more difficult to treat than people with other ypes of personality disorders?