Presentation on theme: "Credit given to Ms. Chapoton and Holt’s Psychology."— Presentation transcript:
Credit given to Ms. Chapoton and Holt’s Psychology
Dissociation: the separation of certain personality components or mental processes from conscious thought. Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. In some situations, it is normal (becoming engrossed in a book). If dissociation occurs as a way to avoid stressful events or feelings, it can signal a disorder.
Types of Dissociative Disorders: Dissociative Amnesia- Characterized by a sudden loss of memory, usually following a particularly stressful or traumatic event. It cannot be explained biologically. The incidence of dissociative amnesia rises markedly during wartime and natural disasters. Dissociative Fugue- Characterized by not only forgetting personal information and past events but also by suddenly relocating from home or work and taking on a new identity. Individuals may appear healthy until the fugue ends, when they will not remember anything that happened during the fugue.
Dissociative Identity Disorder- Involves the existence of two or more personalities within a single individual. The various personalities may or may not be aware of the other. Formerly called multiple personality disorder Depersonalization Disorder- Depersonalization: feelings of detachment from one’s mental processes or body People describe being outside their bodies.
Psychoanalytic theory suggests people dissociate in order to repress unacceptable urges. Learning theorists claim individuals have learned not to think about disturbing events in order to avoid feelings, of guilt, shame, or pain. Cognitive and biological theorists have not offered a complete explanation of dissociative disorders.
Somatization: the expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms. People with somatoform disorders have psychological problems (such as depression) but experience inexplicable physical symptoms (such as paralysis).
Conversion Disorder- Patients experience a change in or loss of physical functioning in a major part of the body for which there is no known medical explanation Patients often show a lack of concern for their symptoms. Hypochondriasis A person’s unrealistic preoccupation with thoughts that he or she has a serious disease. Patients may become absorbed by minor physical symptoms and sensations.
Explanations are primarily psychological. Psychoanalytic theory suggests disorders occur when individuals repress emotions associated with forbidden urges and instead express them symbolically in physical symptoms. Other psychologists have argued that people with conversion disorder “convert” psychological stress into actual medical problems. Behavioral theorists have suggested that somatoform symptoms can serve as a reinforcer if they successfully allow a person to escape from anxiety. There is some evidence that biological or genetic factors may play a role.