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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 1 Chapter 18 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Section 1: What Are Psychological Disorders?What Are.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 1 Chapter 18 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Section 1: What Are Psychological Disorders?What Are."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 1 Chapter 18 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Section 1: What Are Psychological Disorders?What Are Psychological Disorders? Section 2: Anxiety DisordersAnxiety Disorders Section 3: Dissociative DisordersDissociative Disorders Section 4: Somatoform DisordersSomatoform Disorders Section 5: Mood DisordersMood Disorders Section 6: SchizophreniaSchizophrenia Section 7: Personality DisordersPersonality Disorders

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 2 Chapter 18 Question: What is the basis for classifying psychological disorders? CLASSIFYING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Most psychologists believe that it is important to have a widely agreed upon classification of psychological disorders It is important to classify psychological disorders so that individuals can be correctly diagnosed and treated Section 1: What Are Psychological Disorders?

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 3 Chapter 18 ANXIETY DISORDERS Feeling anxious all or most of the time or having anxiety that is out of proportion to the situation provoking it Anxiety that interferes with effective living, the achievement of desired goals, life satisfaction, and emotional comfort Signs: trembling, sweating, rapid heart rate, increased blood pressure Section 2: Anxiety Disorders

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 4 Chapter 18 Types of Anxiety Disorders: Phobic Disorder: Simple Phobia- Most common anxiety disorder, refers to persistent excessive or irrational fear of a particular object or situation. Affects person’s life. Social Phobia- characterized by persistent fear of social situations in which one may be exposed to others while doing something embarrassing. EX: public speaking, eating

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 5 Chapter 18 Panic Disorder: recurring and unexpected panic attacks Generalized Anxiety Disorder: GAD is an excessive or unrealistic worry about life circumstances that lasts at least 6 months. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: OCD Obsessions are unwanted thoughts, ideas, or mental images that occur over and over again. Compulsions are repetitive ritual behaviors, often involving checking or cleaning something. Usually aware that obsessions are unjustified.

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 6 Chapter 18 Stress Disorders: includes Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)- refers to intense, persistent feelings of anxiety that are caused by an experience so traumatic that it would produce stress in almost anyone (rape, assault, child abuse). Common in war veterans. Symptoms are flashbacks, numbness, nightmares. And Acute stress disorder- is a short term disorder with similar symptoms to PTSD.

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 7 Chapter 18 Explaining Anxiety: According to psychoanalytic theory, anxiety is the result of “forbidden” childhood urges that have been repressed, such as “dirty” sexual thoughts which leads to excessive hand washing. Learning theorists believe phobias are learned or conditioned from childhood when a traumatic event occurred. Anxiety may also be hereditary as proven in an experiment with identical twins and even with identical twins raised in different families

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 8 Chapter 18 Dissociative Disorder: refers to the separation of certain personality components or mental processes from conscious thought – daydreaming. When used to avoid stressful events = disorder FOUR DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS Dissociative Amnesia – characterized by a sudden loss of memory usually following a particularly stressful or traumatic event Section 3: Dissociative Disorders

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 9 Chapter 18 Dissociative Fugue – characterized not only by forgetting personal information and past events but also by suddenly relocating from home or work and taking on a new identity Dissociative Identity Disorder – involves the existence of two or more personalities within a single individual Depersonalization Disorder – feeling of detachment from one’s mental processes or body Section 3: Dissociative Disorders FOUR DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS (continued)

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 10 Chapter 18 Explaining Dissociative Disorders: According to psychoanalytic theory, people dissociate in order to repress unacceptable urges. According to learning theorists individuals have learned not to think about disturbing events in order to avoid feelings of guilt, shame or pain.

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 11 Chapter 18 Somatoform Disorder: refers to the expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms. EX: have disorders such as depression but experience physical symptoms like paralysis DIFFERENCES IN SOMATOFORM DISORDERS Conversion disorder is characterized by a sudden and severe loss of physical functioning that has no medical explanation. Hypochondriasis is the unhealthy fear of having a serious disorder Section 4: Somatoform Disorders

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 12 Chapter 18 Explaining Somatoform Disorders: Primarily psychological. Psychoanalytic- occurs when people repress emotions associated with forbidden urges. Also thought that people with conversion “convert” psychological stress into actual medical problems.

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 13 Chapter 18 Mood Disorders: 2 different categories- Depression, feelings of helplessness and Bipolar Disorder, involves a cycle of mood changes Major Depression: most common of all psychological disorders. Must have 5 of 9 symptoms for 2 weeks: depressed for most of day, loss of interest, weight loss or gain, sleeping more, speeding up or slowing down of physical or emotional reactions, feelings of worthlessness, loss of energy, reduced ability to concentrate, recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 14 Chapter 18 Bipolar Disorder Formerly called manic depression, characterized by major ups and downs in mood. Periods of mania, or hyperactivity and chaotic behavior followed by depression. Manic symptoms- inflated self-esteem, inability to sit still, pressure to keep talking, racing thoughts, difficulty concentrating

15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 15 Chapter 18 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF MOOD DISORDERS Some people are prone to depression because they suffered a real or imagined loss of a loved object or person in childhood Some believe that learned helplessness makes people prone to depression Others believe that some people are prone to depression because of their habitual style of explaining life events Section 5: Mood Disorders

16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 16 Chapter 18 SUBTYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA Paranoid Schizophrenia – delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations relating to a single theme Disorganized Schizophrenia – incoherent in their thoughts and speech and disorganized in their behavior Catatonic Schizophrenia – disturbance of movement Section 6: Schizophrenia

17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 17 Chapter 18 Question: How do personality disorders differ from other psychological disorders? PERSONALITY DISORDERS A personality disorder is part of an individual’s makeup influencing virtually all behavior and thought Other psychological disorders tend to be discrete episodes of illness than can be distinguished from the individual’s usual behavior Section 7: Personality Disorders

18 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 18 Chapter 18 Question: How are psychological disorders identified, what are their symptoms, and how are they classified? Psychological Disorders Identifying Symptoms Classifying


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