2Question: What is the basis for classifying psychological disorders? Chapter 18Section 1: What Are Psychological Disorders?Question: What is the basis for classifying psychological disorders?CLASSIFYING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERSMost psychologists believe that it is important to have a widely agreed upon classification of psychological disordersIt is important to classify psychological disorders so that individuals can be correctly diagnosed and treated
3ANXIETY DISORDERS Chapter 18 Section 2: Anxiety DisordersANXIETY DISORDERSFeeling anxious all or most of the time or having anxiety that is out of proportion to the situation provoking itAnxiety that interferes with effective living, the achievement of desired goals, life satisfaction, and emotional comfortSigns: trembling, sweating, rapid heart rate, increased blood pressure
4Types of Anxiety Disorders: Chapter 18Types of Anxiety Disorders:Phobic Disorder: Simple Phobia- Most common anxiety disorder, refers to persistent excessive or irrational fear of a particular object or situation. Affects person’s life.Social Phobia- characterized by persistent fear of social situations in which one may be exposed to others while doing something embarrassing. EX: public speaking, eating
5Chapter 18Panic Disorder: recurring and unexpected panic attacksGeneralized Anxiety Disorder: GAD is an excessive or unrealistic worry about life circumstances that lasts at least 6 months.Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: OCD Obsessions are unwanted thoughts, ideas, or mental images that occur over and over again. Compulsions are repetitive ritual behaviors, often involving checking or cleaning something. Usually aware that obsessions are unjustified.
6Chapter 18Stress Disorders: includes Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)- refers to intense, persistent feelings of anxiety that are caused by an experience so traumatic that it would produce stress in almost anyone (rape, assault, child abuse). Common in war veterans. Symptoms are flashbacks, numbness, nightmares. And Acute stress disorder- is a short term disorder with similar symptoms to PTSD.
7Chapter 18Explaining Anxiety: According to psychoanalytic theory, anxiety is the result of “forbidden” childhood urges that have been repressed, such as “dirty” sexual thoughts which leads to excessive hand washing. Learning theorists believe phobias are learned or conditioned from childhood when a traumatic event occurred. Anxiety may also be hereditary as proven in an experiment with identical twins and even with identical twins raised in different families
8FOUR DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS Chapter 18Section 3: Dissociative DisordersDissociative Disorder: refers to the separation of certain personality components or mental processes from conscious thought – daydreaming. When used to avoid stressful events = disorderFOUR DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERSDissociative Amnesia – characterized by a sudden loss of memory usually following a particularly stressful or traumatic event
9FOUR DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS (continued) Chapter 18Section 3: Dissociative DisordersFOUR DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS (continued)Dissociative Fugue – characterized not only by forgetting personal information and past events but also by suddenly relocating from home or work and taking on a new identityDissociative Identity Disorder – involves the existence of two or more personalities within a single individualDepersonalization Disorder – feeling of detachment from one’s mental processes or body
10Explaining Dissociative Disorders: Chapter 18Explaining Dissociative Disorders:According to psychoanalytic theory, people dissociate in order to repress unacceptable urges. According to learning theorists individuals have learned not to think about disturbing events in order to avoid feelings of guilt, shame or pain.
11Hypochondriasis is the unhealthy fear of having a serious disorder Chapter 18Section 4: Somatoform DisordersSomatoform Disorder: refers to the expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms. EX: have disorders such as depression but experience physical symptoms like paralysisDIFFERENCES IN SOMATOFORM DISORDERSConversion disorder is characterized by a sudden and severe loss of physical functioning that has no medical explanation.Hypochondriasis is the unhealthy fear of having a serious disorder
12Chapter 18Explaining Somatoform Disorders: Primarily psychological. Psychoanalytic-occurs when people repress emotions associated with forbidden urges. Also thought that people with conversion “convert” psychological stress into actual medical problems.
13Chapter 18Mood Disorders: 2 different categories- Depression, feelings of helplessness and Bipolar Disorder, involves a cycle of mood changesMajor Depression: most common of all psychological disorders. Must have 5 of 9 symptoms for 2 weeks: depressed for most of day, loss of interest, weight loss or gain, sleeping more, speeding up or slowing down of physical or emotional reactions, feelings of worthlessness, loss of energy, reduced ability to concentrate, recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.
14Chapter 18Bipolar DisorderFormerly called manic depression, characterized by major ups and downs in mood. Periods of mania, or hyperactivity and chaotic behavior followed by depression. Manic symptoms- inflated self-esteem, inability to sit still, pressure to keep talking, racing thoughts, difficulty concentrating
15PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF MOOD DISORDERS Chapter 18Section 5: Mood DisordersPSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF MOOD DISORDERSSome people are prone to depression because they suffered a real or imagined loss of a loved object or person in childhoodSome believe that learned helplessness makes people prone to depressionOthers believe that some people are prone to depression because of their habitual style of explaining life events
16SUBTYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA Chapter 18Section 6: SchizophreniaSUBTYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIAParanoid Schizophrenia – delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations relating to a single themeDisorganized Schizophrenia – incoherent in their thoughts and speech and disorganized in their behaviorCatatonic Schizophrenia – disturbance of movement
17PERSONALITY DISORDERS Chapter 18Section 7: Personality DisordersQuestion: How do personality disorders differ from other psychological disorders?PERSONALITY DISORDERSA personality disorder is part of an individual’s makeup influencing virtually all behavior and thoughtOther psychological disorders tend to be discrete episodes of illness than can be distinguished from the individual’s usual behavior
18Psychological Disorders Chapter 18Question: How are psychological disorders identified, what are their symptoms, and how are they classified?SymptomsPsychological DisordersIdentifyingClassifying