Explaining Somatoform Disorders Psychoanalytic Theory – repress emotions associated with forbidden urges and express them instead physically Behavior Theory – symptoms serve as a reinforcer if they successfully allow a person to escape from anxiety Recent thoughts – convert psychological stress into actual medical problems Possible genetic factors
Mood Disorders Mood changes that are inappropriate or inconsistent with the situations to which one is responding Very common
A Few Facts on Depression Annual economic impact of adult depression is estimated at $83 billion in lost productivity Over the past 50 years, men of all ages have killed themselves at 4 or more times the rate of women Men often find other coping methods than seeking help (drinking) Women 3x more likely to attempt suicide Men 4x more likely to die from suicide
Major Depression Feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, great sadness Multiple symptoms that last at least 2 weeks Exhibit symptoms nearly every day Requires immediate attention – 15% of severely depressed commit suicide Women more likely to be diagnosed – Why?
Symptoms of Depression Need 5 of the 9 symptoms 1.Persistent depressed mood for most of day 2.Loss of interest or pleasure in all or most activities 3.Significant weight loss or gain due to changes in appetite 4.Sleeping more or less than usual 5.Speeding up or slowing down of physical and emotional reactions 6.Fatigue or loss of energy 7.Feelings of worthlessness or unfounded guilt 8.Reduced ability to concentrate or make meaningful decisions 9.Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
Bipolar Disorder Manic Phase Inflated self-esteem Racing thoughts Difficulty concentrating extreme excitement characterized by hyperactivity and chaotic behavior Sometimes accompanied by delusions or hallucinations Depressive Phase Lethargy, despair, unresponsive Similar behavior as someone with major depression ___________________________ Some have long intervals of normal behavior in between Others rarely exhibit normal behavior
Explaining Mood Disorders Chemical imbalances in neurotransmitters Treat with anti-depressant drugs – Paxil – Zoloft – Prozac No accepted test to show imbalance Not clear why this happens Psychotherapy helps