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Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS ANXIETY & MOOD DISORDERS."— Presentation transcript:


2 I.What is Anxiety? A. generalized state of dread or uneasiness that occurs in response to a vague or imagined danger 1. Not the same as fear (response to real danger) 2. nervousness, inability to relax B. Physical signs: 1. trembling, sweating, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, increased blood pressure, flushed face, feeling faint a. all result of overactivity of sympathetic branch in autonomic nervous system

3 C. EVERYONE FEELS ANXIOUS 1. before a big game = appropriate response 2. this response is not a PD D. Feeling anxious all or most of the time 1. sign of a PD E. Anxiety-based disorders are among most common of all PDs in US

4 II. Types of Anxiety Disorders A. Phobic Disorder 1. persistent excessive or irrational fear of a particular object or situation 2. to be diagnosed, the fear must lead to avoidance behavior that interferes with normal life 3. Most common of all anxiety disorders 4. Examples: a. zoophobia – fear of animals b. claustrophobia – enclosed spaces c. acrophobia – heights d. arachnophobia - spiders

5 5. Social Phobia – fear of social situations in which one might be scrutinized or humiliated / embarrassed a. may invent excuses to avoid going to parties B. Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia 1. Panic Disorder may lead to recurring, unexpected panic attacks 2. Panic Attack – short period of intense fear or discomfort a. shortness of breath, dizziness, rapid heart rate, trembling, sweating, choking, nausea

6 3. Agoraphobia – fear of being in places in which escape is difficult or impossible a. have panic attacks when they cannot avoid the stressful situations they fear b. leads to avoidance behavior c. avoid crowded places or never leave home at all C. Generalized Anxiety Disorder – GAD (6 months) a. excessive worry about life circumstances b. finances, employment, illness

7 D. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder – OCD 1. obsessions – unwanted thoughts or ideas that occur over and over 2. compulsions – repetitive ritual behaviors a. may reduce the anxiety the obsessions produce i. time consuming / create more interference 3. Hoarding 4. Locking the doors over and over 5. Washing hands over and over

8 E. Stress Disorders 1. PTSD – intense anxiety caused by traumatic experience 2. common result of extensive trauma 3. symptoms include: a. flashbacks, nightmares, numbness of feelings, avoidance of stimuli, tension

9 III. Explaining Anxiety Disorders A. Psychological Views 1. Psychoanalytic Theorists a. no longer accepted, but did influence later theories b. anxiety is result of “forbidden” childhood urges that have been repressed, or hidden from consciousness c. lead to compulsive behaviors

10 2. Learning Theorists – phobias are conditioned, or learned, in childhood a. people will avoid situations that make them feel anxiety i. anxiety may worsen because they don’t learn other ways of coping 3. Cognitive Theorists – people make themselves anxious by responding negatively to most situations

11 B. Biological Views 1. believe heredity may play a role in most psychological disorders, including anxiety a. people more inclined to fear things that threatened their ancestors b. Some disorders reflect both biological and psychological factors

12 IV. Mood Disorders A. Sad / mad when things are going well B. Two categories: 1. Depression – feelings of sadness, helplessness 2. Bipolar Disorder – cycle of mood changes C. Major Depression – most common of all PDs (8 – 18% of general population will experience major depression in their lifetime) a. Must show 5 symptoms to be diagnosed b. one must be from the first 2 on list

13 1. persistent depressed mood for most of the day 2. loss of interest in all or almost all activities 3. significant weight loss or gain due to changes in appetite 4. sleeping more or less than usual 5. speeding up or slowing down of physical and emotional reactions 6. fatigue or loss of energy 7. feelings of worthlessness or unfound guilt 8. reduced ability to concentrate or make meaningful decisions 9. recurrent thoughts of death or suicide

14 D. Bipolar Disorder 1. mania (extreme excitement) can change into depression quickly and for no apparent reason 2. characterized by over excitement and sometimes irritability E. Postpartum Disorder 1. women feel hopeless and inadequate at childcare skills 2. occurs after giving birth

15 V. Explaining Mood Disorders A. Psychological View 1. psychoanalytic view connects past events to the present. a. people prone to depression suffered a real or imagined loss during childhood b. internalize the anger toward themselves, leading to depression B. Learning View 1. people believe that previous events were out of their control, and therefor future events will be too a. Martin Seligman – electric shock with dogs 2. when a negative event occurs, they feel helpless… leading to depression

16 C. Cognitive View 1. explanation of events a. internal or external, stable or unstable b. blaming self or others D. Biological Views 1. Two Neurotransmitters: a. serotonin & noradrenaline (norepinephrine) i. both play a role in mood regulation b. low levels of serotonin may create tendencies toward mood disorders c. low levels of serotonin and noradrenaline is linked to depression

17 E. Biological and Psychological Factors 1. depressing situation slows down neurotransmitters (noradrenaline) activity in the brain 2. the chemical changes may then worsen the depression


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