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Ch 1 Grammar Review El 4/5 de octubre del 2011. Notes You will copy the following notes on page 53 of your INB. The title for this section will be: Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 1 Grammar Review El 4/5 de octubre del 2011. Notes You will copy the following notes on page 53 of your INB. The title for this section will be: Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 1 Grammar Review El 4/5 de octubre del 2011

2 Notes You will copy the following notes on page 53 of your INB. The title for this section will be: Chapter 1 Grammar Review If you run out of room, get a loose leaf-paper and continue your notes there.

3 Adjectives Adjectives agree with nouns in gender and number. masculine adjectives end in -o or -r feminine adjectives end in -a or -ra Other adjectives end in -e or other consonants for both masculine and feminine. To make an adjective plural, add -s to a vowel or -es to a consonant. MasculineFeminine -o changes to -a Bueno(s)Buena(s) Same form for masculine and feminine Grande(s) Intelectual(es) 53

4 Ser (to be) yo soy- I amnosotros somos- we are tú eres- you arevosotros sois- you are él es – he isellos son- they are ella es-she is ellas son- they are usted es- you areustedes son- you are ser (to be) soysomos eressois esson 53

5 D- day and date Hoy es el 30 de agosto. O- occupation Soy profesor. C- characteristicSoy baja y rubia. T-timeSon las dos. O- originElla es de Chile. R- relationshipJorge es mi primo. & M- materialLa mesa es de madera. R- religionMi abuelo es judío. E - event locationLa fiesta es en el gimnasio. 53

6 Gustar Gustar is used to say what you like. Gustar is a verb, but it does not behave like regular verbs. How does it work? – Only two forms: gusta (used with verb infinitives & singular things) gustan (used with plural things) – Has special pronouns: menos teos leles 53

7 Gustar If you need to clarify or emphasize who likes something: me te le A mí A ti A él A ella A usted nos os les A A A ellos A ellas A ustedes A Juan le gusta la pizza y a Rosa le gusta la comida china. A mis hermanos les gusta cantar, pero a mis hermanas les gusta bailar. 53

8 Regular Verbs Verb infinitives in Spanish end in -ar, -er, or -ir. hablarbeberabrir Infinitive means that the verb is not conjugated. Conjugation is the way you change a verb to use it with specific subjects (people/things). Regular verbs are conjugated in predictable ways. 53

9 Regular Verb Endings Spanish subject pronouns él, ella, ustedellos, ellas, ustedes Steps to conjugate: (1) drop the ending, (2) identify the subject, (3) choose the correct ending! -ar verbs -o-amos -as-aís -a-an -er verbs -o-emos -es-eís -e-en -ir verbs -o-imos -es-ís -e-en 53

10 Stem-ChangingVerbs Stem-Changing Verbs When you conjugate, the stem is… whats left after you drop the –ar, -er, or -ir How can you tell if a verb is a stem changer? You just have to memorize it! The stem change occurs in all forms except… the and form. In Spanish there are four groups of stem- changing verbs: e iee i o ueu ue 53

11 Verbs with Irregular Yo Forms salir (to go out) salgosalimos salessalís salesalen hacer (to do, to make) hagohacemos haceshaceís hacehacen poner (to put) pongoponemos ponesponeís poneponen saber (to know information) sésabemos sabessabeís sabesaben traer (to bring) traigotraemos traestraeís traetraen ver (to watch/to see) veovemos vesveís veven 53

12 Verbs with Irregular Yo Forms Some verbs have irregular yo forms and are also irregular in other ways. Tener, venir, and decir are also stem-changers: venir (to come) e ie vengovenimos vienesvenís vienevienen tener (to have) e ie tengotenemos tienesteneís tienetienen decir (to say/to tell) e i digodecimos dicesdecís dicedicen 53

13 Reflexive Verbs! When the doer and the receiver of an action are the same person, you use a reflexive verb. Example: I wash my hands. Reflexive verbs use their own special kind of pronouns, reflexive pronouns. These can replace or be used with subject pronouns. Either way, you have to use the reflexive pronoun with a reflexive verb. lavarse (to wash) Yo me nos lavamos Tú te os lavaís Usted se lava Él se lava Ella se lava Ustedes se lavan Ellos se lavan Ellas se lavan menos teos se Me lavo las manos. 53

14 Reflexive Verbs: How to conjugate 1.Choose the pronoun (based on the subject) 2.Conjugate the verb (based on the subject) a)Drop the –ar, -er, or –ir b)Add your ending depending on who the subject is Él/Ella/UstedSe Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes -o-amos -as-aís -a-an -o-emos -es-eís -e-en -o-imos -es-ís -e-en I want to say I bathe in Spanish. bañarse me bañar me bañ___ me baño 1.2.a.2.b. -ar verbs -er verbs-ir verbs 53

15 Tener (to have) tengotenemos tienestenéis tienetienen 53

16 Tener Idioms In Spanish there are many idioms or expressions that start with the verb tener. – tener…años – tener calor – tener ganas de + infinitive – tener suerte – tener éxito – tener razón – tener cuidado – tener hambre – tener sed – tener frío – tener sueño – tener prisa – tener que + infinitive ¡Ojo! In English, many of these expressions use verbs other than to have in English. ¡Ojo! In English, many of these expressions use verbs other than to have in English. 53

17 ir (to go) voyvamos vasvaís vavan To say you are going to a place, you have to use a Voy a la biblioteca. Ella va al parque. 53

18 The Simple Future: Ir a + infinitive The simple future is how you say what you are going to do in the future. To form the simple future, use… A form of ir (depending on the subject): ir (to go) voyvamos vasvaís vavan a a Infinitive of a verb Infinitive of a verb hablar vivir estudiar comer escribir patinar correr Such as 53

19 Present Progressive In Spanish, the present Progressive is formed by using a conjugated form of estar followed by the present participle. The present participles in Spanish are: estar + -ando/-iendo Present Participles -ar-er-ir -ando-iendo 53

20 Direct Objects & Direct Object Pronouns Verbs can be followed by direct objects, the person or thing receiving the action of the verb. Rafaela pone la mesa. Rafaela sets the table. Siempre pido la sopa. I always order soup. A direct object can be a noun or a pronoun. 53

21 Direct Objects & Direct Object Pronouns Use direct object pronouns to avoid repeating nouns that have already been mentioned. These pronouns must agree with the nouns they stand for. ¿Quién va a pedir el flan? -Yo lo voy a pedir. Who is going to order flan? -I am going to order it. MasculineFeminine Singularlo him/itla her/it Plurallos themlas them 53

22 Direct Objects & Direct Object Pronouns Direct object pronouns go before the conjugated verb. ¿Quién prepara los sándwiches? Yo los preparo. If there is an infinitive in the sentence, the pronouns go before the conjugated verb OR are attached to the end of the infinitive. ¿Quién va a preparar la cena? Mi padre la va a preparar. Mi padre va a prepararla. 53

23 Commands A command tells a person or group of people what to do or what not to do. An affirmative command tells someone what to do. An informal (or tú) command is used when you – are talking to one person AND – you would normally address him/her with tú 53

24 Forming commands To form an affirmative tú command: 1.Conjugate the verb in the tú form and 2.Drop the s bailar - to dance Bailas. - You dance. ¡Baila! - Dance! 53

25 An easy way to remember is… Vin Diesel has ten weapons. 53 Yo, I got ten weapons. Venir ven (come) Decir di (say/tell) Salir sal (leave) Hacer haz (make) Tener ten (have) Ir ve (go) Poner pon (put) Ser sé (be)

26 To form a negative tú command… Negative Command Rap – Put it in the yo form, Drop the -o, Add the opposite ending, And your ready to go. 53

27 Irregular Negative Tú Command These irregulars are different Ser no seas(Dont be!) Ir no vayas(Dont go!) Dar no des(Dont give!) Estar no estés(Dont be!) Saber no sepas (Dont know!*) Think SIDES 53

28 Spelling changes Verbs that end in -car, -gar or -zar have a spelling change in the negative tú command. Can you figure out why? 53

29 Pronounce the following words to yourself calor cena queque calor (k) vs. cena (s) vs. queque (k) so c qu This change happens in the NEGATIVE tú command for verbs that end in –car Sacar no saques la basura (Dont take out the trash!) Why only in the negative tú command? 53

30 Pronounce the following words to yourself gato gente Aguilar gato (g) vs. gente (h) vs. Aguilar (g) so g gu No pagar no pagues (Dont pay!) Again this happens in the negative (not affirmative) tú command. 53

31 For verbs that end in –zar z c No empezar no empieces (Dont start!) 53

32 Writing Activity – INB pg 52 Write a letter to a friend who moved to another city a few years ago. Describe a new friend you made by giving two physical characteristics and two personality traits. Also, tell two things that your friend does every morning and two things that you and your new friend like to do on the weekends.

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