2Direct object pronouns The object that directly receives the action of the verb is called the direct object.The direct object answers the question "what?" or "whom?" with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing.When the pronoun replaces the name of the direct object, use the following pronouns:In sentences with two verbs, there are two options regarding the placement of the direct object pronoun.1. Place it immediately before the conjugated verb.2. Attach it directly to the infinitive.DOPNsSingularPlural1st personMe= ________Us = ________2nd PersonYou = ________3rd personHim = ________Her = ________You/It = ________Them (m) _______Them (fem) _____Y’all ___________nosmeteloloslalasLo/laLos/las
3Indirect object pronouns The indirect object (IO) tells us where the direct object (DO) is going.The indirect object answers the question "To whom?" or "For whom?" the action of the verb is performed.Sentences that have an indirect object usually also have a direct object. Remember, the IO tells us where the DO is going.Sometimes the direct object is not stated; rather it is implied, or understood.
4Indirect object pronouns When a pronoun takes the place of the name of the indirect object, use the following pronouns:IDOPNsSingularPlural1st person(to/for) Me= ________(to/for) Us = ________2nd Person(to/for) You = ________3rd person(to/for) Him = ________(to/for) Her = ________(to/for) You/It = ________(to/for) Them (m) _______(to/for) Them (fem) _____(to/for) Y’all ___________nosmetelelesleleslelesThe IO pronouns le and les present a special problem because they are ambiguous.Since le and les can mean more than one thing, a prepositional phrase is often added to remove the ambiguity or for emphasis
5Preterite of regular –ar verbs The preterite is used for past actions that are seen as completed.The preterite of regular -ar verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending -ar and adding the appropriate endings to the stem.Note that verbs that end in ______, ______, and ______ have a spelling change in the ______ form._______ = _______Pret. –ar endingsSingularPlural1st person2nd Person3rd personcargarzaryoéamoscarastequégarguéóaronzarcé
6Ser and Ir in the preterite The verbs ir and ser are irregular in the preterite tenseThe context in which each verb is used in the sentence will clarify the meaning.The verb ser is not used very often in the preterite.Pret. Ofser and irSingularPlural1st person2nd Person3rd personfuifuimosfuistefuefueron
7Preterite of regular –er and –ir verbs Both regular –er and –ir verbs have the same set of endingsPret. Er/ir endingsSingularPlural1st person2nd Person3rd personíimosisteióieron
8Dar and Ver in the preterite The preterite endings of the verbs dar and ver are the same as those of regular -er and -ir verbs, except for the accent marks.Pret.darSingularPlural1st person2nd Person3rd personPret.verSingularPlural1st person2nd Person3rd persondidimosvivimosdistevistediodieronviovieron
9Present tense “go” verbs The verbs hacer (to do, to make), poner, traer (to bring), and salir have an irregular yo form.The yo form has a g. All other forms are the same as those of a regular -er or -ir verb.hacerponertraersalirYoTúÉl,ella, ud.NosotrosEllos, ellas, Uds.hagopongotraigosalgohacesponestraessaleshaceponetraesalehacemosponemostraemossalimosghacenponentraensalenBeware of the sneaky “g”
10Present tense “go” verbs The verb venir (to come) also has an irregular yo form. It conjugates like the verb tener. It is an e-ie stemchanger.PresentvenirSingularPlural1st person2nd Person3rd personvengovenimosvienesvienevienen
11Present progressive tense The present progressive is used in Spanish to express an action that is presently going on—an action in progress.The present progressive is formed by using the present tense of the verb estar and the present participle—speaking, doing.To form the present participle of most verbs in Spanish you drop the ending of the infinitive and add -ando to the stem of -ar verbs and -iendo to the stem of -er and -ir verbs.Note that the verbs leer and traer have a y in the present participle.leyendo trayendo
12Saber y conocer in the present tense The verbs saber and conocer both mean to know.Note that like many Spanish verbs they have an irregular yo form in the present tense. All other forms are regular.PresentsaberSingularPlural1st person2nd Person3rd personPresentconocerSingularPlural1st person2nd Person3rd personsésabemosconozcoconocemossabesconocessabesabenconoceconocen
13Saber y conocer in the present tense The verb saber means to know a fact or to have information about something. It also means to know how to do something.The verb conocer means to know in the sense of to be acquainted with.It is used to talk about people and complex or abstract concepts rather than simple facts.
14Reflexive verbsA verb is reflexive when the subject and the object are the sameWhen a verb is reflexive, the infinitive ends in "se."The reflexive pronouns areme, te, se, nos, seSteps to conjugatingCutFlingFlopChopsuey(switch-a-roonie)SchmooshmelavaroseCut off the “se”Fling “se” in front of the verbFlop “se” over into me, te, se, nos, or se to match the subjectChop off –ar, -er, -irSwich the stem if necessaryAdd the appropriate ending