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The Cold War, 1945-1991. United States of America Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USA USSR.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War, 1945-1991. United States of America Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USA USSR."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War, 1945-1991

2 United States of America Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USA USSR

3 Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin at Yalta February 4 - 11, 1945

4 The Soviet Union prior to World War II

5 As the Soviets pushed back the Nazis, they claimed new territory.

6 They took part of Finland

7 They took Estonia

8 They took Latvia

9 They took Lithuania

10 They took part of Poland for White Russia

11 They took part of Romania for the Ukraine

12 They took part of Czechoslovakia for White Russia

13 They took a part of Germany

14 The U.S.S.R. expanded their territory and the number of republics

15 Potsdam Conference July 17 to August 2, 1945

16 Attlee, Truman and Stalin at Potsdam Following up on the Yalta Conference, the Allied Powers met again after Germany’s surrender to discuss what do in Europe. How are Constitutional governments “weaker” than authoritarian governments? Is the period 1945-1963 a time of peace or war? Churchill, Truman, Stalin Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin February 11, 1945 July 17, 1945 July 31, 1945

17 Germany was partitioned by the Allies after the war

18 Austria would also be divided

19 The city of Berlin was also partitioned

20 There was the American sector

21 the French sector

22 the British sector

23 and the Soviet sector

24 Portions were given to Poland and the Soviets

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26 Austria would eventually be unified

27 The divisions of Germany and the city of Berlin

28 East and West Germany and East and West Berlin

29 Poland would fall under Soviet influence

30 Poland would also gain parts of Germany

31 Czechoslovakia was last in Eastern Europe to fall under Soviet dominance

32 Hungary would also fall under Soviet control

33 Romania would follow Soviet direction

34 Bulgaria would also come into the Soviet sphere

35 For a time, Albania will be under Soviet direction

36 East Germany would be a satellite state as well

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44 The division between the two sides would come to be called the Iron Curtain

45 The Truman Doctrine o Great Britain called for the United States to take its place in aiding Greece and Turkey against communist aggression o Truman gave a speech in 1947 calling for the Republican Congress to support increasing aide to nations fighting the spread of communism (specifically Greece and Turkey) Truman Doctrine o The Truman Doctrine is the United States will use its financial and military resources to fight against the spread of communism anywhere in the world

46 The Marshall Plan (1947-1951) Financial aid from the U.S. to Europe Goal #1: avoid repeat of WWI Goal #2: curb rising power of communism in Western Europe Offered to all of Europe $3,000,000,000 in aid over 4 years Soviet Union rejected offer (Soviet Satellites included) Accomplished Truman Doctrine goal by stabilizing Western Europe and putting them on the path to economic recovery The architect of the Marshall Plan was Truman’s Secretary of State George C. Marshall

47 Berlin Airlift (June 1948-May 1949) 200,000+ flights +$2 billion cost in today’s money 31 American and 40 British pilots lost their lives

48 "The issue that faces us are momentous involving the fulfillment or destruction not only of this Republic but of civilization itself." NSC-68 A classified document until the 1970s, it was written in 1950 for President Truman and became the basis for U.S. Cold War policy until the 1970s.

49 George Kennan (1904- 2005) was the architect of the theory of “containment.” Although a principle participant in the Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine, Kennan moved to a more moderate position by the mid-1950s and even opponent of Cold War diplomacy by the 1970s

50 International Organizations United Nations OAS - Organization of American States International Alliances NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization Warsaw Pact SEATO - Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

51 United Nations (1945) Peace Keeping Peace Keeping organization created to provide collective security to the world’s nations General Assembly General Assembly: 177 nations Security Council Security Council: 15 nations (10 2-yr terms by regional voting) Permanent Security Council Permanent Security Council: 5 nations (USA, Great Britain/UK, France, USSR/Russia, China

52 United States Mexico Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay Organization of American States (OAS) 1948 21 nations

53 United States Mexico Guatemala Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay El Salvador Honduras Antugua and Barbuda St. Vincent and the Grenadines Dominica St. Lucia Barbados Trinidad and Tobago Grenada St. Kitts and Nevis Jamaica The Bahamas Canada Guyana Suriname Organization of American States (OAS) today Belize 35 nations

54 Truman’s Re-Election of 1948 Polling showed Thomas Dewey (R-NY) was ahead leading into the election. Early results led people to go to bed believing Dewey was the next president. Dixiecrats Dixiecrats were Democrats upset by Truman’s decision to de- segregate the military. Many felt Truman couldn’t win re- election without the “Solid South.”

55 Truman’s election in 1948 (with Democratic control of both Houses of Congress) showed the country was strongly behind the Democratic ideals of FDR’s New Deal

56 Truman’s Fair Deal o Spawned from FDR’s “Second Bill of Rights” o federal government is responsible for people obtaining employment, food, shelter, education, and health care o Similar to Europe’s “welfare state” o Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 o reversed the Wagner Act, 1935 o limited ability of unions to strike and prevented radicals from leadership roles **Truman vetoed the Taft-Hartley Act but his veto was overridden by a Republican Congress o Opposed segregation as it issued an invitation to communism

57 After World War II, western democracies were concerned about Soviet expansion North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1949

58 10 European nations along with Canada and the U.S. created NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1949 Norway France United Kingdom Portugal Italy Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Denmark Iceland

59 NATO, 1952 Greece and Turkey would join Nato in 1952 Greece Turkey

60 NATO, 1955 West Germany would be added in 1955

61 Warsaw Pact, 1955 Soviet Union PolandEast Germany Czechoslovakia Hungary Romania Bulgaria Albania In 1955, the Soviet Union, East Germany and 6 other Eastern European nations created the Warsaw Pact

62 Soviet Union PolandEast Germany Czechoslovakia Hungary Romania Bulgaria Albania The border nations became known as Satellite States and, along with the U.S.S.R., became known as the Soviet Bloc

63 Unlike NATO, the Warsaw Pact was less than voluntary. Most attempts to move away from the alliance were met with military force.

64 Albania was able to break away, severing military ties in 1962 and withdrawing completely in 1968

65 By the end of the 80’s, most of Europe was divided into one camp or the other

66 Berlin Wall August 1961-November 1989 o Built by East Germany (and USSR) in August 1961 to stop its people from escaping into West Berlin o Became the literal symbol of the Cold War o Presidents Kennedy and Reagan gave famous addresses from the Brandenburg Gate near the Wall View from West Berlin of “the Death Strip”

67 The ‘Asian’ Cold War o The USA failed to understand and recognize Asian communism versus European communism o Cold War fears led the USA to support anti- communist governments despite their own lack of democratic style-regimes

68 Jiang Jieshi (Chaing Kai-shek) Was an ally of the United States during World War II and led the Chinese Nationalists against the growing rise of communism in mainland China

69 Mao Zedong (Tse-tung)

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71 The Long March covered over 6,000 miles and lasted over a year. 70-90% of the 100,000 who began died.

72 In 1949 the Communists forced the Nationalists to retreat to Taiwan. Taiwan “The Theme of China Lost” by Dean Acheson

73 Truman Doctrine vs Brezhnev Doctrine  NSC-68 & George Kennan  1956 Hungary Invasion  1968 Prague Spring invasion of Czechoslovakia

74 U.S.S.R. ChinaJapan Philippines India Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean EUROPE AFRICA Korea

75 The Korean Peninsula Japan China

76 At the end of World War II, Korea was divided in two at the 38 th Parallel; the north being communist and the south a freely elected democracy.

77 Pusan Seoul On June 25, 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea, quickly taking the capital city of Seoul and pushing almost to Pusan by September.

78 Pusan Seoul Inchon In September, 1950, United Nations forces, led by U.S. General Douglas MacArthur, with a surprise landing at Inchon.

79 U.N. forces swiftly liberated the South and, in November, had pushed the North Koreans almost to the Chinese border at the Yalu River. Seoul Yalu River China

80 Seoul China In late November, 1950, China came to the aid of the North, sending in 300,000 troops and driving the U.N. forces back.

81 Seoul By January, 1951, the Communists had retaken Seoul and made their deepest push of this offensive.

82 Truman and MacArthur got into a disagreement about the course of the war—namely the use of nuclear weapons against China. MacArthur went on Congressional trial in the summer of 1951 and was removed from command.

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84 The “Old Soldier” “I am closing my 52 years of military service. When I joined the Army, even before the turn of the century, it was the fulfillment of all of my boyish hopes and dreams. The world has turned over many times since I took the oath on the plain at West Point, and the hopes and dreams have long since vanished, but I still remember the refrain of one of the most popular barrack ballads of that day which proclaimed most proudly that ‘old soldiers never die; they just fade away’.” His farewell speech was interrupted by ovation 50 times

85 Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964)  At age 25, named youngest ever Major General  Served in World War I (1917-1918)  Superintendent of West Point (1919-1922)  President of US Olympic Committee (1928)  Organized the Civilian Conservation Corps (1933)  US Armed Forces Far East Commander (1941-1945)  Oversaw occupation of Japan (1945-1951)  Led United Nations Command in Korean War (1950-1951)

86 Chinese forces crossing the Yalu River (Oct. 1950) This was the first racially integrated army since the War for Independence The “Forgotten War”

87 Over 44,000 Americans died or went missing during the Korean War

88 Seoul By 1952, the U.N. forces had recaptured Seoul and most of South Korea. Peace talks began at Panmunjom. In July, 1953, a cease- fire was signed. Panmunjom

89 Korea before and after the war. Before After 5,000,000 people lost their lives in the Korean war

90 SEATO Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (1954-1977) Designed to promote democracy among Southeast Asian nations in acceptance of the Domino Theory

91 War Hero General Elected in 1952 (1953-1961); 34 th US President First Republican elected since 1928 Continued New Deal programs (even expanded Social Security) Relied heavily on VP Nixon Used CIA to depose communists in Iran, Guatemala, Congo, and began Bay of Pigs plans Eisenhower Doctrine Brinkmanship (MAD) Warning on Farewell Address

92 Eisenhower Doctrine Issued in response to two issues: 1. USSR influence and attempts to spread communism (Middle East) 2. Need to fill void left by colonial powers Great Britain and France Nations could request U.S. military aid if their nation was being threatened by aggression. Eisenhower with the Shah of Iran. The Shah became close allies with the West during the 1950s

93 Brinkmanship John Foster Dulles, Eisenhower’s Secretary of State, felt the best way to deal with communism was 1) threaten nuclear war and 2) work covertly to overthrow communist aggressors in 3 rd world nations MAD This philosophy became known during the Cold War as Mutually Assured Destruction, or MAD

94 Civil Rights and the Cold War Supported the end of segregation in federal issues, but not federal authority over state issues Created the Civil Rights Commission to investigate Southern violations of federal law Enforced civil rights legislation when federal law was violated (Little Rock Nine) Warned America in his Farewell Address of “the military-industrial complex” and “unwarranted” American influence in Cold War affairs

95 Competition for the 3 rd World The world’s a chess board Asia, Africa, and Latin America Why did those nations take the money and surrender sovereignty? FIRST WORLD SECOND WORLD THIRD WORLD

96 Egypt Congo (Zaire) EUROPE ASIA Ethiopia Kenya Sudan Libya Chad Angola Zambia Tanzania Uganda Mozambique Madagascar Cameroon There were strong efforts by the U.S. and U.S.S.R. to influence governments in emerging nations such as Egypt and the Congo (Zaire). This included money and military aid.

97 The Suez Crisis (1956) Egypt recognized the People’s Republic of China Egypt nationalized the canal Britain, France, and Israel militarily seized the canal US and USSR agreed at UN that the tripartite aggressors should withdraw Known as the tripartite aggressors, the Sinai War began due to fears of possible Soviet aggression with Egypt against Israel

98 U-2 Spy Plane Incident o U-2 planes fly at extreme high altitude (65,000 feet) o Shot down May 1, 1960 o Piloted by Francis Gary Powers o USA initially denied existence of plane and its mission, then claimed it was a NASA flight o Forced to admit it was spying on USSR when Premier Krushchev produced pictures of nuclear and military technology taken by the U-2 o Escalated the Cold War mentality

99 U.S.S.R. ChinaJapan Philippines India Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean EUROPE AFRICA Vietnam

100 China Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) Vietnam South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu Philippines Vietnam, along with Cambodia and Laos, was part of French Indochina until 1954 Taiwan

101 China Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) Vietnam South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu Philippines Taiwan In 1954, nationalist forces led by Ho Chi Minh defeated the French at Dien Bien Phu

102 China Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu South Vietnam North Vietnam The Domino Theory became a guiding force in U.S. policy

103 China Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu South Vietnam North Vietnam Fearing an expansion of communism, the U.S. led an effort which divided Vietnam

104 China Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu South Vietnam North Vietnam Ho Chi Minh’s forces controlled North Vietnam

105 China Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu South Vietnam North Vietnam A government headed by Ngo Dinh Diem controlled South Vietnam

106 China Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu South Vietnam North Vietnam Diem’s dictatorial leadership led many to resist his government

107 China Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu South Vietnam North Vietnam This resistance, the Viet Cong, worked with North Vietnam against Diem’s regime in the South

108 China Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu South Vietnam North Vietnam The U.S. sent military advisors and equipment to aid the South beginning in the 1950’s

109 China Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu South Vietnam North Vietnam Diem is assassinated in a military coup and fear of a communist takeover of the South rises in 1963

110 China Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu South Vietnam North Vietnam In 1964, the U.S. reports an attack on U.S. destroyers by patrol boats in the Gulf of Tonkin

111 The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964 allowed LBJ to use conventional military troops in Vietnam without a declaration of war.

112 China Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu South Vietnam North Vietnam President Johnson begins bombing of North Vietnam in 1965

113 China Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu South Vietnam North Vietnam Nixon begins withdrawing troops in 1969 while bombing communist supply lines and bases in Cambodia

114 China Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Saigon Hanoi Dien Bien Phu South Vietnam North Vietnam A peace agreement was signed in 1973 and the U.S. began pulling out of Vietnam

115 China Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Hanoi The communists took control of all of Vietnam in 1975 Ho Chi Minh City

116 The Bay of Pigs Invasion (April 1961) Bay of Pigs

117 The Cuban Missile Crisis (Oct. 1962)

118 Cuba Dominican Republic Puerto Rico Haiti Jamaica United States Mexico El Salvador Guatemala Belize Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Gulf of Mexico Caribbean Sea Fidel Castro forces Batista to flee Cuba – January 1, 1959

119 Cuba Dominican Republic Puerto Rico Haiti Jamaica United States Mexico El Salvador Guatemala Belize Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Gulf of Mexico Caribbean Sea Cuba becomes a communist state and allies itself with the Soviet Union

120 Cuba Dominican Republic Puerto Rico Haiti Jamaica United States Mexico El Salvador Guatemala Belize Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Gulf of Mexico Caribbean Sea In 1962, U.S. spy planes discover Soviet offensive missiles in Cuba

121 Cuba Dominican Republic Puerto Rico United States Mexico El Salvador Guatemala Belize Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Gulf of Mexico Caribbean Sea After a Soviet denial, the U.S. enacted a shipping “quarantine”- a blockade would be an act of war

122 Cuba Dominican Republic Puerto Rico United States Mexico El Salvador Guatemala Belize Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Gulf of Mexico Caribbean Sea As Soviet ships approached Cuba carrying more weapons, they were intercepted by U.S. Naval forces

123 Cuba Dominican Republic Puerto Rico United States Mexico El Salvador Guatemala Belize Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Gulf of Mexico Caribbean Sea As Soviet ships approached Cuba carrying more weapons, they were intercepted by U.S. Naval forces

124 Cuba Dominican Republic Puerto Rico United States Mexico El Salvador Guatemala Belize Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Gulf of Mexico Caribbean Sea To avoid confrontation, the Soviets circled back The U.S. won the standoff!!

125 Cuba Dominican Republic Puerto Rico United States Mexico El Salvador Guatemala Belize Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Gulf of Mexico Caribbean Sea The world seemed doomed to nuclear war for a period of about 13 days

126 Cuba Dominican Republic Puerto Rico United States Mexico El Salvador Guatemala Belize Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Gulf of Mexico Caribbean Sea U.S.: full withdrawal of nuclear missiles in Cuba U.S.S.R.: promise to never invade Castro’s Cuba & removal of some intercontinental missiles in Greece & Turkey

127 Cold War Timeline in Latin America 1954—CIA aids coup of Guatemala 1959—Fidel Castro’s coup creates pro-USSR government 1960—CIA supports coup in El Salvador 1961—CIA trains 1,400 Cuban exiles for Bay of Pigs invasion 1961—CIA-backed coup overthrows communist friendly Ecuador 1963—CIA-backed coup overthrows suspected communist leader in Dominican Republic 1964—U.S. military aids coup in Brazil after leader nationalized oil industry 1973—U.S. aids coup in Chile because he opposes communism (he terminates civil liberties in Chile) 1980—U.S. supports anti-communist regime in El Salvador 1981—CIA aids “Contras” in Nicaragua 1983—U.S. trains Mejia to start coup in Guatemala 1983—U.S. invades Grenada to stop communist revolution 1989—U.S. invades Panama to oust Noriega for drug trafficking

128 The Soviet Union’s Vietnam Afghanistan  USSR invasion in 1979

129 Soviet Union China India Iran Pakistan Iraq Turkey Saudi Arabia EUROPE AFRICA Afghanistan Indian Ocean During the 1970’s Afghanistan had a pro- Soviet regime

130 Soviet Union China India Iran Pakistan Iraq Turkey Saudi Arabia EUROPE Afghanistan Indian Ocean In 1979, the Soviets invaded Afghanistan AFRICA

131 Soviet Union China India Iran Pakistan Iraq Turkey Saudi Arabia EUROPE Afghanistan Indian Ocean In 1989, the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan AFRICA

132 Cold War Sports The Olympics o 1972 Munich Summer Games o 1980 Winter Olympics (Lake Placid, New York) o 1980 Summer Olympics (Moscow, Russia) o 1984 Summer Olympics (Los Angeles, California) The first rule of Olympic competition was amateur athletes instead of professional. The two great problems of Cold War Olympics were: 1.Soviet Bloc athletes trained full-time but maintained amateur status—giving them an unfair advantage 2.Judged events were susceptible to “Western” or Communist bias

133 Palestinians storm the Olympic Village and murder 11 Israeli athletes in the middle of the games

134 The United States men’s basketball team had never lost an Olympic game until the gold medal match between the USA and USSR in 1972. The USSR was granted several “do-overs” until they finally scored in the final seconds to defeat the USA at the buzzer. To this day, every USA player has refused to accept their silver medals.

135 The USSR’s dominance in hockey was undeniable. They had captured nearly every world title and Olympic gold since 1956. The 1980 USSR hockey team defeated the NHL All-Stars 6-0 and had defeated Team USA in an exhibition less than a month before 10 to 3. Trailing 2 goals to 3 in the final period Team USA scored 2 unanswered goals to complete “the Miracle on Ice.”

136 Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, President Jimmy Carter gave the USSR an ultimatum to withdraw or the United States would boycott the Moscow Summer Games in the fall of 1980.

137 Los Angeles 1984 Summer Games In retaliation for the 1980 Moscow Boycott, the USSR and the Soviet Bloc skipped the Olympics in the United States. Unlike the previous games, their non-attendance was not the financial punishment that the United States delivered to the communists in 1980.

138 Israel and Middle East Conflict

139 The World War I British mandate of Palestine 1917 – Balfour Declaration

140 Palestine existed as a mandate through World War II. Zionists wanted a Jewish homeland created there. The predominantly Arab population living there wanted their freedom granted but without an increase in the Jewish population.

141  Key Geographical Points  Galilee along the border with Christian dominated Lebanon  The strategic Golan Heights taken from Syria  Arab Palestinian dominated Gaza Strip and the West Bank  The holy city of Jerusalem, sacred to Jews, Christians and Muslims  The historic Dead Sea  The historically Egyptian Sinai Peninsula  The Suez Canal, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba; all important to Israel for trade

142  Palestine existed as a mandate through World War II.  Zionists wanted a Jewish homeland created there.  The predominantly Arab population living there wanted their freedom granted but without an increase in the Jewish population.

143 In 1947 it was proposed that Palestine be divided into two separate nations – the Arab state of Palestine

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147 In 1947 it was proposed that Palestine be divided into two separate nations – the Arab state of Palestine and the Jewish state of Israel.

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151 In 1947 it was proposed that Palestine be divided into two separate nations – the Arab state of Palestine and the Jewish state of Israel. This would divide the territory. In 1948, the United Nations adopted the proposal.

152 Israel’s Arab neighbors attacked within 24 hours of the creation of the state of Israel.

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154 In a few months, Israel had defeated their attackers and controlled half of what had been the Arab Palestine. The Eisenhower Doctrine and a pro-Israeli foreign policy placed the United States in the middle of the conflict.

155 In a few months, Israel had defeated their attackers and controlled half of what had been the Arab Palestine.

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159 Palestine and Israel by the end of 1949.

160 In the Six Day War of 1967, Israel took the West Bank

161 In the Six Day War of 1967, Israel took the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, ending the existence of Palestine

162 In the Six Day War of 1967, Israel took the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, ending the existence of Palestine. They also took the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt

163 In the Six Day War of 1967, Israel took the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, ending the existence of Palestine. They also took the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt and the Golan Heights from Syria.

164 By the end of 1967, Israel was nearly four times its original size. Palestine ceased to exist, being absorbed by her Arab neighbors and then Israel. Egypt had their enemy, Israel, just across the Suez Canal.

165 In the late 1970’s, the U.S. sponsored meetings between Israel and Egypt leading to the Camp David Accords and a strained peace. In 1982, the Sinai was returned to Egypt.

166 In the late 1970’s, the U.S. sponsored meetings between Israel and Egypt leading to the Camp David Accords and a strained peace. In 1982, the Sinai was returned to Egypt.

167 In the late 1970’s, the U.S. sponsored meetings between Israel and Egypt leading to the Camp David Accords and a strained peace. In 1982, the Sinai was returned to Egypt.

168 In the late 1970’s, the U.S. sponsored meetings between Israel and Egypt leading to the Camp David Accords and a strained peace. In 1982, the Sinai was returned to Egypt.

169 In 1993, an historic agreement between Israel and the PLO gave limited autonomy to the Palestinians in the West Bank under the Palestinian Authority led by Yasir Arafat.

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172 In 1993, an historic agreement between Israel and the PLO gave limited autonomy to the Palestinians in the West Bank under the Palestinian Authority led by Yasir Arafat. Recent events have all but wiped out the hope that agreement brought to the region.

173 Collapse of the Soviet Union ECONOMIC  command economy  military costs  low production levels POLITICAL  resistance of Satellite States and non-Russian republics  corruption  lack of freedom (glasnost & perestroika)

174 Soviet Union Poland East Germany Czechoslovakia Hungary Romania Bulgaria As the Soviet hold weakened, the Satellite States began to establish themselves independently

175 Non-Russian Republics Estonia Latvia Lithuania Belarus Ukraine Moldova Kazakhstan Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Armenia Georgia Azerbaijan

176 Africa Russia Estonia Latvia Lithuania Belarus Ukraine Moldova Poland Romania Germany The Soviet Union dissolved and the non-Russian republics began to set up their own governments

177 Russia EUROPE AFRICA Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Georgia AzerbaijanArmenia The Soviet Union dissolved and the non-Russian republics began to set up their own governments

178 Collapse of the Soviet Union Reagan vs. Gorbachev

179 In 1989, the Communist hold began weakening and in 1991 the Warsaw Pact was dissolved

180 The re-unification of Germany led to the former East German territory becoming part of NATO Germany

181 Political concerns led to the creation of the Partnership for Peace in 1994 which included, among other nations, Russia and most of the former Warsaw Pact states

182 Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic were admitted to NATO in 1999 Czech Republic Poland Hungary

183 In 2003, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria were conditionally admitted Estonia Latvia Lithuania Slovakia Slovenia Romania Bulgaria

184 Albania and Macedonia are on a candidate waiting list for membership Albania Macedonia

185 Croatia has applied for membership and is waiting to hear about becoming a candidate Croatia

186 United States Mexico Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay Organization of American States (OAS) 1948 21 nations

187 United States Mexico Guatemala Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay El Salvador Honduras Barbados Trinidad and Tobago Organization of American States (OAS) 1967 Caribbean Sea Gulf of Mexico Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago added

188 United States Mexico Guatemala Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay El Salvador Honduras Jamaica Organization of American States (OAS) 1969 Jamaica added

189 United States Mexico Guatemala Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay El Salvador Honduras Grenada Organization of American States (OAS) 1975 Grenada added

190 United States Mexico Guatemala Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay El Salvador Honduras Suriname Organization of American States (OAS) 1977 Suriname added

191 United States Mexico Guatemala Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay El Salvador Honduras Dominica St. Lucia Organization of American States (OAS) 1979 Dominica and Saint Lucia added

192 United States Mexico Guatemala Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay El Salvador Honduras Antugua and Barbuda St. Vincent and the Grenadines Organization of American States (OAS) 1981 Antigua & Barbuda and Saint Vincent & the Grenadines added

193 United States Mexico Guatemala Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay El Salvador Honduras The Bahamas Organization of American States (OAS) 1982 The Bahamas added

194 United States Mexico Guatemala Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay El Salvador Honduras St. Kitts and Nevis Organization of American States (OAS) 1984 St. Kitts and Nevis added

195 United States Mexico Guatemala Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay El Salvador Honduras Canada Organization of American States (OAS) 1990 Canada added

196 United States Mexico Guatemala Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay El Salvador Honduras Guyana Organization of American States (OAS) 1991 Belize Belize and Guyana added

197 United States Mexico Guatemala Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Venezuela Haiti Dominican Republic Ecuador Peru Bolivia Argentina Chile Brazil Uruguay El Salvador Honduras Antugua and Barbuda St. Vincent and the Grenadines Dominica St. Lucia Barbados Trinidad and Tobago Grenada St. Kitts and Nevis Jamaica The Bahamas Canada Guyana Suriname Organization of American States (OAS) today Belize 35 nations

198 Victory in the Cold War and the results elsewhere in the World Socialism/Communism failed in practical use in world history. Even China has opened its global economy in order to expand its world power. The Goddess of Democracy, carved and erected in Tiananmen Square in 1989


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