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TRANSFORMATIONS 1 MARIJA KRZNARIĆ 1 and prep ositions.

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1 TRANSFORMATIONS 1 MARIJA KRZNARIĆ 1 and prep ositions

2 2 TRANSFORM THE SENTENCES BUT KEEP THE SAME MEANING: 1.We haven’t been to a nice restaurant for weeks. since It’s weeks to a nice restaurant. 2. Samantha didn’t speak to me in the pub. avoid Samantha in the pub. 3. Perhaps they phoned while we were shopping. may They while we were shopping. 4. How long have you been learning to drive? when When to drive? 5. Norman doesn’t see his ex-girlfriend anymore. touch Norman has his ex-girlfriend. 6. Samantha loves participating in salsa dancing competitions. part Samantha loves salsa dancing competitions. SINCE WE HAVE BEEN AVOIDED SPEAKINGTO ME MAY HAVE PHONED DID YOU LEARN LOST TOUCH WITH LOVES TAKING PART IN

3 3 7. Scientists say the universe is expanding. believed The expanding. 8. It isn’t necessary for you to pay immediately. have You pay immediately. 9. Could you take me to the airport on Friday morning? mind Would to the airport on Friday morning? 10. The tsunami disaster in Asia was horrifying. horrif y We the tsunami disaster in Asia. 11. A Harley Davidson is much more expensive than a Honda. far A Honda a Harley Davidson. 12. I tolerate my mother-in-law because I don’t want to cause problems. put I mother-in-law because I don’t want to cause problems. UNIVERSE IS BELIEVED TO BE DON’T HAVE TO YOU MIND TAKING ME WERE HORRIFIED BY IS FAR CHEAPER THAN PUT UP WITH MY

4 4 13. Sam can’t see me tonight because he’s going to London. able If Sam wasn’t going to London, he see me tonight. 14. It was such a great game I bought it immediately. so The bought it immediately. 15. Building a house without permission is illegal, isn’t it? law Building a house without permission, isn’t it? 16. The cake was so good that Craig had to eat all of it. such It Craig had to eat all of it. 17. You’ll have to pay at least 40 Euros to get a good meal. difficult You’ll get a good meal for less than 40 Euros. 18. I’ve never seen such an attractive woman. the This is I have ever seen. WOULD BE ABLE TO GAME WAS SO GOOD THAT I IS AGAINST THE LAW WAS SUCH A GOOD CAKE THAT FIND IT DIFFICULT TO THE MOST ATTRACTIVE WOMAN

5 5 19. Take my advice; don't go to Argentina at this time of year. be If I go to Argentina at this time of year. 20. There aren't any beers left. run We beers. 21. Please stop making that stupid noise. wish I making that stupid noise. 22. Why do you tolerate such bad behaviour from your children? up Why such bad behaviour from your children? 23. Samantha managed to finish her work on time. succeed Samantha her work on time. 24. Samantha sent you the keys to her flat. was It the keys to her flat. WERE YOU I WOULDN’T HAVE RUN OUT OF WISH YOU STOPPED DO YOU PUT UP WITH SUCCEEDED IN FINISHING WAS SAMANTHA WHO SENT YOU

6 6 25. Robert lives alone in a small flat. by Robert in a small flat. 26. Robert earns the same amount of money as Samantha. much Robert Samantha. 27. Robert was the only person who didn’t understand. except Everyone Robert. 28. Bill started his business five years ago. set Bill five years ago. 29. I’m sure they’ve read the by now. have They the by now. 30. Robert failed the FCE exam because he hadn’t studied. would If Robert had studied, the FCE exam. LIVES ALL BY HIMSELF EARNS AS MUCH AS UNDERSTOOD EXCEPT SET UP HIS BUSINESS MUST HAVE READ HE WOULDN’T HAVE FAILED

7 7 PUT IN: 1 alternatively, 2 as a result of, 3 consequently, 4 furthermore, 5 in spite of, 6 on top of. UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ……………………. their aim to get more young people into universities, the government has put financial difficulties in their way. Nowadays most students get a loan instead of a grant, and some have to pay tuition fees ……………………… that. …………………….. many of them run great huge debts, or ………………………. their parents have to support them. ……………………… these obstacles, some school leavers are discouraged from applying to go to university. …………………………..., an increasing number are dropping out before completing the course. PUT IN: 1 also, 2 but, 3 despite, 4 or, 5 that, 6 therefore. CAR PROBLEMS I was having a lot of problems with my car. The engine kept cutting out, and I ……..….. had trouble starting it. I got so fed up with it …………….. I took it to a garage. They told me it was going to cost hundreds of pounds to repair, ……..…… unfortunately I didn’t have the money, and I ……………… decided to get rid of the car ………….. needing it for work. Now I get the bus to work ………. a colleague gives me a lift

8 INSERT by from 3x of 2x on 2x to 2x under until Richard Halliburton's book "Second Book of Marvels" 1938 said the Great Wall of China is the only man-made object visible the Moon. This belief has persisted today, assuming urban legend status, sometimes even entering school textbooks. Arthur Waldron, author the most authoritative history the Great Wall, has speculated that the belief might go back the fascination with the "canals" once believed to exist Mars. The logic was simple: If people Earth can see the Martians' canals, the Martians might be able to see the Great Wall. But in fact, the Great Wall is only a few meters wide - similar in size highways and airport runways - and is about the same color as the soil surrounding it. It cannot be seen the unaided eye from the distance of the Moon, much less from Mars. If the Great Wall were visible from the Moon, it would also be apparent from near-Earth orbit, but from there it is barely visible, and only nearly perfect conditions. The Great Wall of China is no more conspicuous (=easy to see or notice)outer space than many other man-made objects. from until of to on to by under from 8

9 INSERT: around back down for of off on onto out up without 1. I didn't get to see the end of that mystery movie on TV last night. How did it turn 2. Jack is having his lawyer draw the contract to make sure that all of the legalities are properly dealt with. We don't want to have any legal problems in the future. 3. The small white flowers are my favorite. They give a wonderful honey smell that scents the entire garden. 4. He told you he was an actor! I can't believe you fell that. How could you ever believe that he was an actor? You are so gullible (=naive). 5. Nina wanted to quit college and become a model. Her parents talked her into staying in school while she pursues her modeling career. That way, if she never makes it as a model, she can always fall on her education. 6. They pulled the heist (=robbery) perfectly. Everything went exactly as they had planned. 7. I can't believe Gina and Dave broke last week. They have been married for almost fifteen years. I hope they get back together. OUT? UP OFF FOR BACK OUT UP 9

10 around back down for of off on onto out up without 8. It took us over twelve hours to hike over the mountain. By the time we got back to our campsite, I was completely worn. 9. Norma has been sick with the flu recently. I don't know if she would feel to going to the movies tonight. 10. We agreed to take care of their kids while they were on vacation in the Bahamas. We knew it would be a challenge, but those kids were far more work than we had bargained ! 11. Laurelle has strong opinions, she loves to talk, and she never backs in an argument. That's why I love debating philosophical issues with her. Sometimes we talk for hours. 12. That's a first edition Star Wars comic book. If I were you, I would hold that. Someday that 50 cent comic book could be worth hundreds, or even thousands, of dollars. 13. At first I didn't like living in New York, but now the city is starting to grow me. I think I am adapting to the fast-paced lifestyle. 14. If you don't have the telephone number now, you can call me later and give it to me then. OUT UP FOR DOWN ONTO ON UP 10

11 around back down for of off on onto out up without 15. When Judy suggested that the company cancel it's advertising campaign in "Newsweek" to save money, the marketing director shot the idea immediately. He reminded her that that particular campaign had always been especially productive because of its popularity with the public. 16. Poor Markie has such enormous ears! All the little kids at school make fun him and call him "Dumbo the elephant boy." 17. Candice was so tired that she nodded during her astronomy lecture right in front of the professor. She needs to get more sleep. 18. You already have a cassette player, a record player, a video recorder, a CD player, a DVD player, a Walkman, a MiniDisk player, and an Ipod. I think you can do an HD-DVD player for a while. At least until the price comes down a little. 19. I couldn't make what he had written in the note because his handwriting is so unclear. 20. To get a good price on a new notebook computer, you really need to shop There are some great bargains out there, but you have to look for them. DOWN OF OFF WITHOUT OUT AROUND. 11

12 away down for in into off on out through up 1. I can't believe how cheap it is to fly to New York right now. It's like they're giving the tickets. 2. No matter how hard I work on my essays, I keep getting really low grades. I think my writing teacher just has it for me. She doesn't seem to like me at all. 3. Sidney came (=get ill) with a terrible case of food poisoning after she ate the fish at that restaurant. I suggest we find another place to eat tonight. 4. They didn't have enough people sign up for the student ski trip to Lake Tahoe, so the organizers called the trip. I wish they hadn't canceled it, I was really looking forward to going. 5. John was laid when his company downsized their marketing division. He has already interviewed with a couple of new companies and it looks like he might be offered a position with a new Internet start-up based in San Francisco. 6. I'm sorry, I didn't mean to interrupt you. Please, go and finish what you were saying. 7. When John and Frank first met, they hit it immediately. They have been good friends ever since. AWAY IN DOWN OFF ON OFF 12

13 away down for in into off on out through up 8. I didn't see the moose grazing near the edge of the forest until Max pointed it to me. His knowledge of wildlife enables him to spot many animals that most people would never notice. 9. There was a huge coffee stain on floor near the copy machine at work. My boss asked who had made the mess, but nobody would own to it. Maybe the culprit was afraid that he or she would have to pay to have the carpet professionally cleaned. 10. Wayne missed on the chance to go with us to the concert because he had the flu. 11. One of the inmates at the local prison escaped last week and was on the run for over three hours before they caught him. They used specially trained police dogs to track him. 12. Now that Liza has retired, she is going to have plenty of free time. Maybe she can take a new hobby or enroll in some classes at the junior college in town. 13. Sebastian wanted to quit college and join a rock band. His parents talked him staying in school while he pursues his interest in music. That way if he never makes it as a singer, he can always fall back on his education. OUT UP OUT DOWN UP INTO 13

14 away down for in into off on out through up 14. What does "www" stand ? Is it short for "world wide web?" 15. The college administration decided to do with the math requirement. Now mathematics is an elective course. 16. If you want to learn to snowboard, I suggest you try it before you buy your own boots and board. You want to make sure you actually like the sport before you put out that much money for the equipment. 17. Diana had wanted to spend Christmas in New Zealand, but her plans fell She couldn't get enough time off from work to make the trip worthwhile. 18. It's really important to have close friends you can count. If you don't have reliable friends who you can trust, you don't really have anything. 19. When she told me she was going to climb Mount Everest, it didn't really sink (=understand). Only later did I realize how truly dangerous her latest adventure was going to be. 20. Marge started a fire when she dropped her cigarette butt in the trash can at work. Luckily, Sandy grabbed the fire extinguisher off the wall and put the fire before any major damage was done. FOR AWAY OUT THROUGH. ON IN OUT 14

15 15 REWRITE THE SECOND SENTENCE SO THAT IT HAS A SIMILAR MEANING TO THE FIRST. USE NO MORE THAN 5 WORDS. 1. You must never take your helmet off while you are riding a motorcycle. all Helmets must be worn at all times when riding a motorcycle. 2. They wanted to apologize for their behavior: that's why they paid for dinner. order They paid for dinner in order to apologize for their behavior. 3. It isn't necessary to bring skis as they are included in the package. have You don’t have to bring skis as they are included in the package. 4. I thought parking was allowed here. under the impression I was under the impression that parking was allowed here. 5. Tom said, "I will be playing tennis when you arrive." he Tom said he would be playing tennis when I arrived.

16 16 6. When I was a child, we would go to the local park every Saturday afternoon. used When I was a child, we used to go to the park every Saturday. 7. His daughter continued to cry until he could not be seen any longer. sight She continued to cry until he was out of sight. 8. I'm afraid that car is just too expensive. means That car is beyond my means. 9. They moved to this suburb in lived They have lived in this suburb since One other thing before I forget - Jack is coming to visit next weekend. by By the way, Jack is coming to visit next weekend.

17 They managed to finish the project in time for the presentation. succeeded They succeeded in finishing the project in time for the presentation. 12. Maurice didn't come to the meeting yesterday. Perhaps he was ill. might Maurice might have been ill yesterday. 13. Jane allows her children to stay up to midnight on Saturday evenings. let Jane lets her children stay up late on Saturdays. 14. Luckily, Peter wasn't charged with an offense when the police caught him stealing the first time. off Peter was very lucky because he was let off. 15. Can I accompany you to the party? mind Do you mind my accompanying you to the party?

18 I wish you didn't drive so fast. only If only you didn’t drive so fast. 17. I think Tom needs to see a doctor. His cough is terrible. ought With that terrible cough, Tom ought to see a doctor. 18. You should feel horrible! Why did you say that to Jack? shame Shame on you! Why did you say that to Jack? 19. The authorities said she wasn't responsible for the accident. fault The accident wasn’t her fault. 20. "Why don't you take a holiday?", said Peter. suggested Peter suggested I take a holiday.

19 I haven't seen Tom for ages. since It's been a long time since I last saw Tom. 22. They were still playing tennis after three hours. been They had been playing for three hours. 23. He didn't want to join in the celebrations. take He didn't want to take part in the celebrations. 24. What a shame he wasn't able to come. wish I wish he had been able to come. 25. I took a sweater but it wasn't necessary. taken I needn’t have taken a sweater.

20 If you don't know how to spell the word, why don't you check in the dictionary? up Why don't you look the word up in the dictionary? 27. Somebody should tell him. told He needs to be told by someone. 28. The concert was horrible. time The concert was a complete waste of time. 29. He couldn't find me at the exhibition. find He wasn't able to find me at the exhibition. 30. She let her son go to New York for the weekend. allowed She allowed her son to go to New York.

21 I haven't seen her for ages. time The last time I saw her was 15 years ago. 32. I didn't understand what he was saying because I hadn't read his book. would If I had read his book I would have understood what he was saying. 33. As the class representative I would like to welcome you. behalf I'd like to welcome you on behalf of the class. 34. They believe the students were educated in Canada. believed The students are believed to have been educated in Canada. 35. He escaped using a disguise. means He escaped by means of a disguise.

22 Remind me to call Jack. forget Don't let me to forget to call Jack. 37. This pasta is a new experience for me. time It is the first time I have tried this pasta. 38. She has probably found a new job. likely It is likely she has found a new job. 39. I don't agree with prohibiting smoking in bars. favour I'm not in favour of prohibiting smoking in bars. 40. It doesn't need to be finished this afternoon. finish It isn’t necessary to finish this afternoon

23 Pittsburgh is less exciting than New York. as Pittsburgh isn’t as exciting as New York. 42. He couldn't read the inscription because it was too high. low The inscription wasn't low enough for him to reach. 43. She didn't accept his marriage proposal. down She turned his marriage proposal down. 44. We were told to wait here by the director. who It was the director who told us to wait here. 45. Can you look after the kids this afternoon? of Can you take care of the kids this afternoon?

24 24 46."Why don't you take a day off?" asked Jim. should Jim suggested I should take a day off. 47. He acts like a poor man even if he has a lot of money. fact Even though he acts like a poor man, he in fact has a lot of money. 48. I didn't mean to break that vase. on I didn't break that vase on purpose. 49.Jack says Jenny is responsible. according It's Jenny's responsibility according to Jack. 50. I was so bored by his lecture I left. boring His lecture was so boring that I left.

25 I am afraid I'm still having problems with understanding life in New York. used I am not used to living in New York. 52. I think we need to get a new car. in We need to get a new car in my opinion. 53. I'd prefer it if you didn't smoke in here. mind Would you mind not smoking in here. 54. Many people were delayed because of the traffic jam. number A number of people were delayed by the traffic jam. 55. It was such an interesting novel I stayed up all night to finish it. so The novel was so interesting I stayed up all night to finish it.

26 Although he was able to do the job, he wasn't given the position. despite Despite his ability to do the job, he wasn't given the position. 57. You should take the train instead of the bus. were If I were you, I'd take the train instead of the bus. 58. Can you describe him to me? like What is he like? 59. It isn't necessary to buy a first class ticket. have You don’t have to buy a first class ticket. 60. I'm sure he was at home last night. must He must have been at home last night.


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