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2 22 COMPLETE THE SECOND SENTENCE SO THAT IT HAS A SIMILAR MEANING TO THE FIRST SENTENCE, USING THE WORD GIVEN. DO NOT CHANGE THE WORD GIVEN. YOU MUST USE MORE THAN TWO WORDS, INCLUDING THE WORD GIVEN. 1. I forgot her number so I couldnt ring her. remember If 2. By pressing the button you lock all the doors. press All the doors 3. I didnt wake up on time because I didnt hear the alarm clock. woken If 4. The reason the dog bit him was that he was in our garden. bitten The dog 5. She wrote very fast and as a result made a lot of mistakes. slowly If she 6. Owing to technical difficulties the plane was not able to take off. able If there HAD REMEMBERED HER NUMBER, I COULD HAVE RUNG HER UP. WILL LOCK IF YOU PRESS THIS BUTTON. ID HEARD THE ALARM CLOCK, I WOULD HAVE WOKEN UP ON TIME. WOULDNT HAVE BITTEN HIM IF HE HADNT BEEN IN OUR GARDEN. HAD WRITTEN MORE SLOWLY, SHE WOULDNT HAVE MADE SO MANY MISTAKES. HADNT BEEN TECHNICAL DIFFICULTIES, THE PLANE WOULD HAVE BEEN ABLE TO TAKE OFF.

3 33 7. He hasnt got enough money now because he didnt save when he was working. would If now. 8. Its just as well you told me or I might have married him. you If 9. We couldnt play tennis yesterday because of the rain. rain If 10. You can eat sweets but you must always brush your teeth afterwards. provided You can eat sweets 11. If you dont get dressed right away well go without you. put Unless 12. We only eat there because the prices are so low. charge If they 13. I wont eat any more cake because Im full. full If I 14. If that noise doesnt stop soon I wont feel like eating. put off That noise will unless HE HAD SAVED WHEN HE WAS WORKING, HE WOULD HAVE MONEY YOU HADNT TOLD ME I MIGHT HAVE MARRIED HIM. IT HADNT RAINED WE WOULDVE BEEN ABLE TO PLAY TENNIS YESTERDAY. PROVIDED YOU BRUSH YOUR TEETH AFTERWARDS. YOU PUT ON YOUR CLOTHES, WELL GO WITHOUT YOU. DIDNT CHARGE (US) SUCH LOW PRICES WE WOULDNT EAT THERE. WERENT FULL, I WOULD EAT SOME MORE CAKE. PUT ME OFF EATING IT STOPS SOON.

4 Ill only leave the waiter some money if hes quick. tip I wont hes quick. 16. Take my advice and dont drink so much whisky! if Id drink you. 17. Is that the place where you lived before? use Did you place? 18. Before I moved in I had no one to talk to. there Before I moved in anyone to talk to. 19. She doesnt live there any more, I believe. used She, I believe. 20. Whenever I told her that story she always laughed a lot. would I used to tell her that story and a lot. 21. I couldnt warn you because I didnt know about it myself. warned if 22. The reason she found out about it was that he told his sister. if She if he his sister. TIP THE WAITER UNLESS LESS IF I WERE USE TO LIVE IN THAT THERE WASNT USED TO LIVE THERE SHE WOULD ALWAYS LAUGH I COULD HAVE WARNED YOU I HAD KNOWN ABOUT IT MYSELF. WOULDNT HAVE FOUND OUT ABOUT ITHADNT TOLD

5 Not realizing how unhappy she was, he spent very little time with her. would He with her if he how unhappy she was. 24. I lost her phone number so I never saw her again. have I would I hadnt lost her phone number. 25. Were not living together any more because she went away to university. still We if she to university. 26. She didnt take the trouble to find out why so she doesnt understand. had She taken the trouble to find out why. 27. Without the provision of spare parts for the machine, the project would have failed. if the project would have failed. 28. A more gradual introduction of technology would eliminate many problems. introduce many problems 29. Mary rarely watches TV. However, sometimes she watches a documentary or the news. If ever a documentary or the news. if ever WOULD HAVE SPENT MORE TIME HAD KNOWN HAVE SEEN HER AGAIN IF WOULD STILL BE LIVING TOGETHER HADNT GONE AWAY WOULD UNDERSTAND IF SHE HAD IF THE SPARE PARTS FOR THE MACHINE HAD NOT BEEN PROVIDED, IF TECHNOLOGY WERE INTRODUCED MORE GRADUALLY, WOULD BE ELIMINATED. SHE WATCHES TV, ITS

6 66 Transform the sentences but keep the same meaning: 1) The last time I saw him was three years ago. I for three years. 2) They have been married for 25 years. They 25 years ago. 3) Mary did the shopping despite the heavy rain. Mary did the shopping even heavily. 4) Why don't you take the train to London?. How train to London?. 5) Although, she was wealthy she lived in poverty. Despite in poverty. 6) The carpenter is building a new bookcase for us. We are built. 7) I haven t typed the report yet. The report yet. 9) There had to be someone who knew the answer. Someone the answer. 10) It s about a four hour drive from Valencia to Madrid. The drive from Valencia to Madrid four hours. HAVENT SEEN HIM GOT MARRIED THOUGH IT WAS RAINING ABOUT TAKING THE BEING WEALTHY SHE LIVED HAVING A NEW BOOKCASE HASNT BEEN TYPED MUST HAVE KNOWN TAKES ABOUT

7 7 11) Sam felt happy after having a hard work out with her tennis instructor. mood Sam after having a good work out with her tennis instructor. 12) Writing all of the sentence isn t necessary in this exercise. need There s all of the sentence in this exercise. 13) Nobody, apart from Robert s mother, thought he would pass the FCE exam. person Robert s mother thought he would pass the FCE exam. 14) The secretary connected me to the managing director. put The secretary the managing director. 15) Samantha would have gone to dinner with Leo if she hadn t been so tired. tired Samantha was to dinner with Leo. 16) The Indian restaurant was practically empty. hardly There the Indian restaurant. WAS/FELT IN A GOOD MOOD NO NEED TO WRITE WAS THE ONLY ONE WHO PUT ME THROUGH TO TOO TIRED TO GO WAS HARDLY ANYONE IN

8 8 17) Robert couldn t solve the problem. solution Robert was unable the problem. 18) I can t believe this is the best Chinese restaurant in Madrid! better There must in Madrid! 19) It s a waste of time for you to ask Samantha for her phone number. point There s Samantha for her phone number. 20) Robert has a full time job and looks after his sick mother too. well Robert has a full time job his sick mother. 21) Whose is this Gameboy? the teacher asked the students. to Who ? the teacher asked the students. 22) They aren t selling tickets for the U2 concert until next week. being Tickets for the U2 concert until next week. 23) It is a nurse s responsibility to take care of the patients. responsible A nurse patients. TO FIND THE/A SOLUTION TO BE A BETTER CHINESE RESTAURANT NO POINT (IN) ASKING AS WELL AS LOOKING AFTER DOES THIS GAMEBOY BELONG TO ARENT BEING/WONT BE SOLD IS RESPONSIBLE FOR LOOKING AFTER THE

9 9 24) Mary couldnt eat the curry because it was too spicy. too The curry Mary to eat. 25) Im sorry I didnt kiss her when I had the chance. wish I her when I had the chance. 26) Danny wrote his best poetry while he was staying in Tel Aviv. was Dannys best poetry stay in Tel Aviv. 27) We will send the disk only if you pay us first, said Luis. not We will you pay us first, said Luis. 28) Football doesnt interest Craig. interested Craig football. 29) You may have to sleep outside so take a sleeping bag. case Take a sleeping bag sleep outside. 30) Ive had enough of the noise from next door. put I refuse the noise from next door any more. 31) The council are going to demolish that old block of flats. pulled That old block of flats down. WAS TOO SPICY FOR WISH I HAD KISSED WAS WRITTEN DURING HIS NOT SEND THE DISK UNLESS ISNT INTERESTED IN IN CASE YOU HAVE TO TO PUT UP WITH IS GOING TO BE PULLED

10 10 32) I haven t seen this film before. time It s the first this film. 33) How long was your journey from Barcelona to Valencia? take How long travel from Barcelona to Valencia? 34) After a long session with her gym instructor Sam was so tired that she couldn t eat much. too After a long session with her gym instructor Sam was. 35) Doing sentence transformations is not as much fun as listening to native speakers. than Listening to native speakers sentence transformations. 36) Craig began to learn Spanish five years ago. learning Craig five years. 37) Robert has not had a job for three years. out Robert for three years. TIME I HAVE SEEN DID IT TAKE YOU TO TOO TIRED TO EAT IS MORE FUN THAN DOING HAS BEEN LEARNING SPANISH FOR HAS BEEN OUT OF WORK/A JOB

11 11 38) Have you read any poems by Pablo Neruda, Craig? asked Angela. read Angela asked Craig any poems by Pablo Neruda. 39) The last time I got drunk was eight months ago. for I eight months. 40) Harry is not usually late. like It is late. IF/HE HAD READ HAVENT BEEN DRUNK FOR NOT LIKE HARRY TO BE 41) Why dont you do some exercise? said Angela. doing Angela exercise. 42) If you dont lose weight, youll get depressed. lose Unless get depressed. 43) I havent tried skiing before. first This is tried skiing. 44) The bank has rejected my application for a loan. turned My application for a loan the bank. SUGGESTED DOING SOME YOU LOSE WEIGHT YOULL THE FIRST TIME I HAVE HAS BEEN TURNED DOWN BY

12 12 45) The company chairman said that his accountant had stolen the money. accused The company chairman the money. 46) They are too young to be smoking marijuana. enough They to be smoking marijuana. 47) Teachers have refused to work for three weeks. strike Teachers three weeks. 48) It was wrong of you to offer him money. Have You him money. 49) I dont want to spend the weekend with your sister and her two horrible kids. rather I the weekend with your sister and her two horrible kids. 50) Thats the nicest compliment Ive ever been given. such Ive nice compliment. ACCUSED HIS ACCOUNTANT OF STEALING ARE NOT OLD ENOUGH HAVE BEEN ON STRIKE FOR SHOULD NOT HAVE OFFERED WOULD RATHER NOT SPEND NEVER BEEN GIVEN SUCH A

13 13 INVERSION Sentence transformations Finish each sentence so that it is as similar in meaning as possible to the one printed before it. 1. The minute she left, the meeting broke up. No sooner... No sooner had she left than the meeting broke up. 2. Immediately after solving one problem, I was faced with another. Hardly … Hardly had I solved one problem when I was faced with another. 3. The colour of that jacket suits you, and it fits you perfectly. Not only … Not only does the colour of that jacket suit you, but it also fits you perfectly. 4. The minute he set eyes on her, he fell in love.No sooner... No sooner had he/did he set eyes on her than he fell in love. 5. You must remember to pay that bill, whatever you do.On no account... On no account must/should you forget to pay that bill.

14 14 6. He did not start to feel ill until after the meal.Only when... Only when he had finished the meal/the meal had ended did he start to feel ill. 7. People are not free from the influence of TV anywhere in the world.Nowhere... Nowhere in the world are people free from the influence of TV. 8. There has not been an invention which so radically affected society since the printing press. Not since... Not since the printing press has there been an invention which so radically affected society. 9. You rarely find a family without a television set nowadays. Rarely... Rarely do you find a family without a television set these days. 10. Busy parents can seldom resist the temptation to use the TV as a childminder. Seldom... Seldom can busy parents resist the temptation to use the TV as a childminder. 11. Some claim that TV discourages conversation and also encourages anti-social behaviour.Not only... Not only does TV discourage conversation, but it also encourages anti- social behaviour.

15 Researchers have not found a single case of violence that could be directly linked to a TV programme.Not a... Not a single case of violence have researchers found that could be directly linked to a TV. 1. What he did next really surprised us. taken We were what he did next. 2. We will never forget that experience. an That was experience. 3. Terry is the shortest member of the team. than No-one in the team Terry. 4. This is the first time anyone has done that. before has anyone done that. 5. I really wish that I had studied harder. more If only. 6.You will get everything you have ever wanted. come All your wishes 7. Everybody thinks that Frank stole the money. of Everybody the money. Transform the sentences but keep the same meaning: taken aback by an unforgettable is shorter than Never before I had studied more will come true. suspects Frank of stealing

16 16 8. Did she say who the dog belonged to? dog Did she say was? 9. They are going to get married next June. planned Their next June. 10. I haven't eaten fish since last Wednesday. time The fish was last Wednesday. whose dog it last time I ate Rewrite the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. Use no more than 5 words. 1 You must never take your helmet off while you are riding a motorcycle. all Helmets must be worn when riding a motorcycle. 2 They wanted to apologize for their behavior: that's why they paid for dinner. order They paid for dinner for their behavior. 3 It isn't necessary to bring skis as they are included in the package. have You bring skis as they are included in the package. marriage is planned for at all times in order to apologize dont have to

17 17 4 I thought parking was allowed here. under the impression I was under the impression that parking was allowed here. 5 Tom said, "I will be playing tennis when you arrive." he Tom said he would be playing tennis when I arrived. 6 When I was a child, we would go to the local park every Saturday afternoon. used When I was a child, we used to go to the park every Saturday. 7 His daughter continued to cry until he could not be seen any longer. sight She continued to cry until he was out of sight. 8 I'm afraid that car is just too expensive. means Im afraid that car is beyond my means. 9 They moved to this suburb in lived They have lived in this suburb since 1997.

18 18 10 One other thing before I forget - Jack is coming to visit next weekend. by, Jack is coming to visit next weekend. 11 They managed to finish the project in time for the presentation. succeeded They the project in time for the presentation. 12 Maurice didn't come to the meeting yesterday. Perhaps he was ill. might Maurice yesterday. 13 Jane allows her children to stay up to midnight on Saturday evenings. let Jane late on Saturdays. 14 Luckily, Peter wasn't charged with an offense when the police caught him stealing the first time. off Peter was very lucky because he. 15 Can I accompany you to the party? mind Do you to the party? By the way succeded in finishing might have been ill lets her children stay up was let off mind my accompanying you

19 19 16 I wish you didn't drive so fast. only If so fast. 17 I think Tom needs to see a doctor. His cough is terrible. ought With that terrible cough, Tom a doctor. 18 You should feel horrible! Why did you say that to Jack? shame ! Why did you say that to Jack? 19 The authorities said she wasn't responsible for the accident. fault The accident 20 "Why don't you take a holiday?", said Peter. suggested Peter a holiday. 21 I haven't seen Tom for ages. since It's been a long time Tom. only you didnt drive ought to see Shame on you wasnt her fault. suggested I take since I last saw

20 20 22 They were still playing tennis after three hours. been They for three hours. 23 He didn't want to join in the celebrations. take He didn't want the celebrations. 24 What a shame he wasn't able to come. wish I wish come. 25 I took a sweater but it wasn't necessary. taken I a sweater. 26 If you don't know how to spell the word, why don't you check in the dictionary? up Why don't in the dictionary? 27 Somebody should tell him. told He by someone. had been playing to take part in he had been able to neednt have taken you look the word up needs to be told

21 21 28 The concert was horrible. time The concert was a complete. 29 He couldn't find me at the exhibition. find He wasn't able me at the exhibition. 30 She let her son go to New York for the weekend. allowed She to New York. 31 I haven't seen her for ages. time The was 15 years ago. 32 I didn't understand what he was saying because I hadn't read his book. would If I had read his book what he was saying. 33 As the class representative I would like to welcome you. behalf I'd like to welcome you the class. waste of time to find allowed her son to go last time I saw her I would have understood on behalf of

22 22 34 They believe the students were educated in Canada. believed The students educated in Canada. 35 He escaped using a disguise. means He escaped a disguise. 36 Remind me to call Jack. forget Don't let Jack. 37 This pasta is a new experience for me. time It is I have tried this pasta. 38 She has probably found a new job. likely It a new job. 39 I don't agree with prohibiting smoking in bars. favour I'm prohibiting smoking in bars. are believed to have been by means of me to forget to call the first time is likely she has found not in favour of

23 23 40 It doesn't need to be finished this afternoon. finish It this afternoon. 41 Pittsburgh is less exciting than New York. as Pittsburgh New York. 42 He couldn't read the inscription because it was too high. low The inscription wasn't for him to reach. 43 She didn't accept his marriage proposal. down She 44 We were told to wait here by the director. who It was the director to wait here. 45 Can you look after the kids this afternoon? of Can the kids this afternoon? isnt necessary to finish isnt as exciting as low enough turned his marriage proposal down. who told us you take care of

24 24 46 "Why don't you take a day off?" asked Jim. should Jim suggested a day off. 47 He acts like a poor man even if he has a lot of money. fact Even though he acts like a poor man, he has a lot of money. 48 I didn't mean to break that vase. on I didn't break that vase 49 Jack says Jenny is responsible. according It's Jenny's Jack. 50 I was so bored by his lecture that I left. boring His lecture was I left. 51 I am afraid I'm still having problems with understanding life in New York. used I living in New York. I should take in fact on purpose. responsibility according to so boring that am not used to

25 25 51 I think we need to get a new car. in We need to get a new car 52 I'd prefer it if you didn't smoke in here. mind smoking in here? 53 Many people were delayed because of the traffic jam. number were delayed by the traffic jam. 54 It was such an interesting novel I stayed up all night to finish it. so The novel was I stayed up all night to finish it. 55 Although he was able to do the job, he wasn't given the position. despite to do the job, he wasn't given the position. 56 You should take the train instead of the bus. were If, I'd take the train instead of the bus. in my opinion. Would you mind not A number of people so interesting Despite his ability I were you

26 26 57 Can you describe him to me? like What ? 58 It isn't necessary to buy a first class ticket. have You a first class ticket. 59 I'm sure he was at home last night. must He at home last night. Why the above transformations at all? The ability to rewrite sentences so that they have the same meaning as the original is often required for many English ESL EFL Exams such as Cambridge's First Certificate, CAE and Proficiency. This skill can also help you prepare for the TOEFL examination (Test of English as a Foreign Language). It is also an important skill which can help you improve your understanding of similar English expressions and vocabulary. is he like dont have to buy must have been



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