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Lecture 16 Planning Ahead.

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1 Lecture 16 Planning Ahead

2 Review of Lecture 15 In lecture 15, we learnt how to
Use gerunds and infinitives Express likes and dislikes Give preferences Show indifference

3 Objectives of Lecture 16 After completing lecture 16, you should be able to Talk about future plans and intentions Use Present Simple and Present Continuous Use Future Simple and ‘be going to’ Write itineraries

4 Some Questions to Start
What do you think will happen at school tomorrow? What are you going to do after school today? What will you do if you don't understand this lesson? Where are you going to travel on your next vacation? Which forms did we use in these questions? Can you explain why?

5 Sudden Decisions We use ‘will’ to talk about unplanned future, something that we decided to do at the moment of speaking. This bag is really very heavy. I’ll carry it for you. There is someone at the door. I’ll get it. The phone is ringing. I’ll pick it up. Let’s have some ice cream. Ok, I’ll pay. Oh, I’ve got so much homework and its very difficult. Don’t worry, I’ll help you.

6 Dialogue – A Party Martha: What horrible weather today. I'd love to go out, but I think it will just continue raining. Jane: Oh, I don't know. Perhaps the sun will come out later this afternoon. Martha: I hope you're right. Listen, I'm going to have a party this Saturday. Would you like to come? Jane: Oh, I'd love to come. Thank you for inviting me. Who's going to come to the party? Martha: Well, a number of people haven't told me yet. But, Peter and Mark are going to help out with the cooking! Jane: Hey, I'll help, too! Martha: Would you? That would be great! Jane: I'll make lasagna! Martha: That sounds delicious! I know my Italian cousins are going to be there. I'm sure they'll love it. Jane: Italians? Maybe I'll bake a cake... Martha: No, no. They're not like that. They'll love it. Jane: Well, if you say so... Is there going to be a theme for the party? Martha: No, I don't think so. Just a chance to get together and have fun. Jane: I'm sure it'll be lots of fun. Martha: But I'm going to hire a clown! Jane: A clown! You're kidding me. Martha: No, no. As I child, I always wanted a clown. Now, I'm going to have a clown at my own party. Jane: I'm sure everyone will have a good laugh.

7 Follow-up Questions What do they think about the weather?
What does Martha have to share? What are Peter and Mark going to do? What does Jane offer to do? How does Jane react to the news about the Italian cousins? What special plan is there? Why does Martha want a clown? Does Martha know exactly how many people are going to come? If yes, how many. If not, why not? How does Jane think people will react to the clown? Is there a theme for the party?

8 Future Intentions and Decisions
We use “be going to” to talk about planned future or intentions. What are you going to do on Saturday? I’m going to visit my parents. Are you free this evening? No, I’m going to see the dentist. Would you like to go hiking with us? I’m afraid I can’t. I’m going to tidy up my room. Let’s go shopping! I’m going to finish this book first. What are your future plans? I’m going to join the army.

9 Future Plans Listen to this dialogue from Grammar Challenge, BBC Learning English and answer the following questions: Where is Sung Hyeon from? Korea Why has the man decided to lose his golf match? To please his boss as he is expecting promotion Which structure is preferable for talking about fixed arrangements in future? Present Continuous Which structure is preferable for talking about intentions and decisions? ‘be going to’ When is Sung going to meet her teacher for her English classes? Sunday afternoon

10 Making Predictions We use ‘be going to’ to make predictions based on some clues in the present. I’ve failed in the exam. Oh, my father is going to be angry with me! I can see dark clouds. It’s going to rain. We don’t have the umbrella. We’re going to get wet. Get up, it’s 8 O’ clock! Oh, I’m going to be late again. Hurry up! The train is blowing the whistle. We’re going to miss the train. Look at that man. He’s driving very fast. Oh my God! He’s going to have an accident!

11 Fixed Schedules When talking about schedules, timetables and itineraries, the present simple tense is used to refer to a future event that is planned and is not likely to change: I have a meeting on the 15th, but I'm free on the following day. What time is your flight? The last train to Rome leaves at On day 6, we visit the pyramids. His father retires in two years. The Spring festival is on Tuesday this year.

12 Present Continuous for the Future
The present continuous is used to talk about arrangements for events at a time later than now. There is a suggestion that more than one person is aware of the event, and that some preparation has already happened. e.g. I'm meeting Jim at the airport = and both Jim and I have discussed this. I am leaving tomorrow. = and I've already bought my train ticket. We're having a staff meeting next Monday = and all members of staff have been told about it. Examples Is she seeing him tomorrow? He isn't working next week. They aren't leaving until the end of next year. We are staying with friends when we get to Boston.

13 Present Simple Vs. Present Continuous
BE CAREFUL! The simple present is used when a future event is part of a program or time-table. Notice the difference between: a. We're having a staff meeting next Monday.  b. We have a staff meeting next Monday.(= we have a meeting every Monday, it's on the time-table.)

14 ‘Going to’ Vs. Present Continuous
Sometimes there is no real difference between an intention (going to) and a plan (present continuous). In this case, it doesn't matter which we use. We're going to paint the bedroom tomorrow. We're painting the bedroom tomorrow.

15 Practice Situation Look at the ‘Daily Plan’ handout and prepare a travel itinerary for your friend. Your itinerary should include daily plan. Here is the situation: Your Facebook Friend, Peter is coming to Pakistan for a week. He’s coming to Pakistan for the first time and knows very little about the country. He’ll stay in Pakistan for a week and would like to visit important cultural and scenic spots in and around your city. He would also like to stay in a hotel and would like to try Pakistani cuisine.

16 Summary of Lecture 16 In lecture 16, we learnt how to
Talk about future plans and intentions Use Present Simple and Present Continuous Use Future Simple and ‘be going to’ Write itineraries

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