2What are the “Present” tenses? SimpleContinuousPerfect
3The Present Simple - Function The Present Simple is used :1. For permanent situationsShe works in an office2. For repeated actions in the presentHe often goes to the cinema (especially with adverbs of frequency)For facts which are permanently trueThe Colosium is in Rome.4. For timetables and programmesThe train leaves at 9 o’clock
4Present simple - Structure The Present simple takes an infinitive verb and we add “s” or “es” in the 3rd person.I like – he likes, they watch – she watchesTo form the negative we add “do not” and in the 3rd person “does not”I do not like – he does not like. We usually use a contracted form when speakingI don’t like – he doesn’t likeThey don’t watch – she doesn’t watchIn the negative the verb is always an infinitive
5The Present Continuous - function The Present Continuous is used: 1. For temporary situations: He’s staying with friends. (He’s with them now) 2. For actions at (or around) the time of speaking: He’s very fit. He’s out cycling (at the moment) 3. For fixed arrangements in the future: I’m going to Paris Tomorrow (it’s all arranged- I have already bought the tickets)
6The Present Continuous - structure The Present continuous is formed with the verb”to be” (I am, you are, he is, she is, etc)and we add “ing” to the principal verbHe is going to London next weekIn the negative we add “not”(I am not, you are not, he is not, plus the “ing”She is not going to London next weekWe usually use a contracted form when speakingI’m not, you aren’t, he isn’t, she isn’t going to…….
7Present Simple “verses” Present Continuous Joyce is a teacher. She works in London. She likes her school and she loves the kids. BUT today is Sunday. She isn’t teaching. She’s relaxing . She’s playing tennis. She’s playing with her friend Jane.
8The Present Perfect - Function The Present Perfect is used:1. For actions which happened at an unstated time in the past. He has sold his car.(When – we don’t know)2. For actions which started in the past and continue up to the present.She has lived in China for 10 years.(She still lives there)3. To express actions which have finished so recently that there is evidence in the presentIt has been raining.(the ground is still wet)
9The Present Perfect - Structure The Present Perfect is formed with “have” plus the past participle. In the 3rd person we use “has” I have been to London. (I am back now) She has gone to London. (She is not back yet) He has been in London for 2 days. (He is still there) To form the negative we add “not” and usually use a contracted form when speaking. I haven’t been to London She hasn’t gone to London
10Present Perfect “verses” Past Simple He has bought a new carWhen? We don’t know.(It isn’t important to know).She has worked here for ten years.She still works here.He bought a new motorcycle yesterday. When? Yesterday. He worked here ten years ago.He doesn’t work here now. He works somewhere else..