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Individual Differences and Emotions. Shift in Focus Effective leadership usually requires working differently with different people. Error #1. Everyone.

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Presentation on theme: "Individual Differences and Emotions. Shift in Focus Effective leadership usually requires working differently with different people. Error #1. Everyone."— Presentation transcript:

1 Individual Differences and Emotions

2 Shift in Focus Effective leadership usually requires working differently with different people. Error #1. Everyone should think and act just like me. Think of problems on teams. Why is this an error. Why is this commonly done (not an easy one to answer).

3 Solution Everyone has their talents. How can I best unleash individual talents. Thank God people are different than me. How effectively can you really work with people are different from you? Effective leaders need this attribute. So need to explore the world of how people are different to effectively unleash talents in different ways.

4 overview

5 Instructional Road Map of Individual Differences in OB Personality Traits Personal Values Self-Concept  Self-esteem  Self-efficacy  Self-monitoring  Organizational identification The Unique Individual Forms of Self-Expression Attitudes/Behavioral intentions Abilities Emotions Job Satisfaction Self-management 5-2 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

6 Begin with Self-Concepts Self-esteem Self efficacy.

7 Self-Esteem Self-Esteem one’s overall self- evaluation General self confidence over many situations. 5-3 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

8 Self Efficacy Self Efficacy is a person’s belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task 5-6 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 Higher levels of both associated with Higher levels of motivation Persistence in spite of negative information. Success (both task success and career success).

10 Effects of High Self-Efficacy and Esteem Prior Experience Sources of Beliefs FeedbackBehavioral PatternsResults High “I know I can do this job” Self-efficacy beliefs Success  Be active—select best opportunities  Manage the situation— avoid or neutralize obstacles  Set goals—establish standards  Plan, prepare, practice  Try hard: persevere  Creatively solve problems  Learn from setbacks  Visualize success  Limit Stress Role models Persuasion Emotional state 5-7 Figure 5-2 McGraw-Hill ©.

11 As a Manager you influence Self efficacy of Subordinates. How: In teams come up with three ways you can shape task specific beliefs. Two ways you have experienced a supervisor or peer lowering self-efficacy.

12 How do you deal with inflated self- efficacy/esteem? Book suggests inflated self-esteem can lead to boastful, aggressive behavior, denigrating ideas and contribution of others (bad team players or overly competitive). Book offers no conclusions. Two types—team players and egoists. Org Culture. Lot of it is selection. Egoists work best with people who do not have high self esteem (perhaps moderate). Put into individually competitive situations. Hardest to unleash their potential.

13 Issue Know yourself. If high esteem efficacy are you competitive? If yes to both, strong interpersonal skills are critical to avoid the darker side of inflated self-esteem. Building self image

14 Getting the most from employees and treating people differently How do you unleash the potential of High self esteem/efficacy How do you unleash the potential of low self-esteem/efficacy

15 Covey’s Seven Habits for Success 1)Begin with the end in mind 2)Put first things first 3)Be proactive 4)Think win/win 5)Seek first to understand, then to be understood 6)Synergize 7)Sharpen the saw 5-12 Table 5-2 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 The Big Five Personality Dimensions Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad minded 5) Openness to experience Relaxed, secure, unworried4) Emotional stability Dependable, responsible, achievement, oriented, persistent 3) Conscientiousness Trusting, good natured, cooperative, soft hearted 2) Agreeableness Outgoing, talkative, social, assertive 1) Extraversion Characteristics of a Person Scoring Positively on the Dimension Personality Dimension 5-13 Table 5-3 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 Take test p Report results to team members. Be honest.

18 Plusses and Minuses of each. How do you work with an introvert/extrovert? How do you unleash their potential?

19 Conscientiousness high with job performance in general Extroverts have more social capital and likely to get promoted (politics?).

20 Issues related to leadership Extroverts view of introverts Introverts view of extroverts Openness to experience in a competitive environment that requires change?

21 Locus of Control External Locus of ControlExternal Locus of Control one’s life outcomes attributed to environmental factors such as luck or fate Internal Locus of ControlInternal Locus of Control belief that one controls key events and consequences in one’s life McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 Take Test P. 170

23 Internals Respond well to planned incentive systems. High Achievers. High Intrinsic motivation.

24 Research focuses on the positive qualities of internal locus External locus more flexible, patient. See justice as not so blind. But accept aberrations. Stuff happens. Work attitudes less subject to variation. Believe that who you know is important than what you know. Work on relationships more than tasks. More opportunistic than goal oriented.

25 Very difficult to uniformly manage Internals and externals. Someone is engaging in flattery, external locus. Know that, gently redirect to task. Opportunism and goal orientation are both great and both frustrating.

26 Important Avoid common error. Accept people have divergent views of appropriate behavior based on personality traits.

27 Emotions Complex patterned organismic reactions to how we are doing in our lifelong efforts to survive and flourish and to achieve what we wish for ourselves. Goal orientation exists. But emotions more than that. Organismic lack of control. We may hide our feelings or leak our feelings, but automatic responses.

28 Think back on 9/11 Emotions?

29 Big issue is to hide emotions at work Can most people do this? Should most people do this? Why? Why not? Back to 9/11. Should firms supervisors do anything.

30 Positive and Negative Emotions Happiness /Joy Pride Love/affection Relief Anger Fright/ anxiety Guilt/ shame Sadness Envy/ jealousy Disgust Negative Emotions (goal incongruent) Positive Emotions (goal congruent) 5-16 Figure 5-4 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 As supervisor you will experience employees with emotional feelings. What do you do. Big marketing campaign that falls flat? What might be different emotional states of employees? What do you tell those employees if anything?

32 Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence ability to manage oneself and interact with others in a constructive way 5-17 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

33 Its pretty clear Emotional intelligence helps to build human capital. Learning to help people manage emotions. Gender issues.

34 Developing Social Competence through Emotional Intelligence Social Awareness Empathy Organizational awareness ServiceRelationshipManagement Inspirational leadership Influence Developing others Change catalyst Conflict management Building bonds Teamwork and collaboration Social Competence: 5-19 Table 5-5 cont. McGraw-Hill

35 Video

36 Summary Aged as an example of unleashing the potential. EQ test. Hardest job of management is managing people who do not think/act as you would and accepting that their actions may be OK for them.


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