3-3 Learning Objectives Explain how a person’s self-esteem, self- efficacy, and self-monitoring affect the person’s self-concept and behavior Describe how people change their behavior through self-management Identify important personality dimensions and their relationship to job performance Define the individual differences of locus of control, attitudes, and intelligence Summarize the role of emotions and emotional intelligence in the workplace
3-4 From Self-Concept to Self-Management Self –core of one’s conscious existence Self-concept –a person’s self-perception as a physical, social, spiritual being Cognitions –a person’s knowledge, opinions, or beliefs
3-5 An OB Model for Studying Individual Differences Figure 3-1
3-6 From Self-Concept to Self-Management Self-esteem –one’s overall self-evaluation.
3-7 Can General Self-Esteem Be Improved? Low self-esteem can be raised more by having a person think of desirable characteristics possessed rather of undesirable characteristics from which he is free
3-8 Question? What is a person’s belief about his chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task? A.Self-monitoring B.Self-reliance C.Self-efficacy D.Learned Helplessness
3-9 Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy –a person’s belief about his chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task Learned Helplessness –debilitating lack of faith in one’s ability to control the situation
3-10 Self-Efficacy See an article on self-efficacy by Judge and Bono
3-11 Self-Efficacy Beliefs Pave the Way for Success or Failure Figure 3-2
3-12 Managerial Implications On-the-job research evidence encourages managers to nurture self- efficacy, both in themselves and in others Significant positive correlation between self-efficacy and job performance
3-13 Managerial Implications Recruiting/ selection/job assignments Job design Self-management Training and development Creativity Coaching Leadership Rewards Goal setting and quality improvement
3-14 Self-Monitoring Self-monitoring –extent to which a person observes their own self-expressive behavior and adapts it to the demands of the situation Positive relationship between high self- monitoring and career success
3-15 Self-Management: A Social Learning Model Social Learning Theory –an individual acquires new behavior through the interplay of cognitive processes with environmental cues and consequences
3-16 A Social Learning Model of Self-Management Figure 3-3
3-17 An Agenda for Self-Improvement 1. Be proactive. Choose goals, and take responsibility for achieving them. 2. Begin with the end in mind; be goal- oriented. 3. Put first things first. Set priorities including work and personal goals, present and future. 4. Think win/win. Look for mutually beneficial solutions.
3-18 An Agenda for Self-Improvement 5. Seek first to understand, then to be understood. Listen carefully. 6. Synergize. Generate teamwork, and value people’s differences. 7. Sharpen the saw. Renew yourself mentally, spiritually, socially/emotionally, and physically. 8. Find your voice by seeking fulfillment, acting passionately, and making a significant contribution—then help others do the same.
3-19 Managing Situational Cues Reminders and attention focusers Self-observation data Avoiding negative cues while seeking positive cues Challenging personal goals Self-contract
3-20 Arranging Cognitive Supports Symbolic coding –human brain stores information in visual and verbal codes Rehearsal –mental rehearsal of challenging tasks can increase one’s chance of success Self-talk –set of evaluating thoughts that you give yourself about facts and events that happen to you
3-21 Administering Consequences 1.Individual must have control over desired reinforcers 2.Individual must reward himself only for meeting the conditions of success 3.Individual needs performance standards that establish the quantity and quality of target behavior required for receiving the reward
3-22 Personality Dynamics Personality –stable and mental characteristics responsible for a person’s identity
3-23 The Big Five Personality Dimensions Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional stability Openness to experience
3-24 Question? Which personality trait has the strongest positive correlation with job and training performance? A.Extraversion B.Conscientiousness C.Openness-to-experience D.Agreeableness
3-25 Personality and Job Performance Conscientiousness has the strongest positive correlation with job and training performance Extraversion is associated with success for managers and salespeople
3-26 Proactive Personality –an action-oriented person who shows initiative and perseveres to change things
3-27 Locus of Control Internal locus of control –attributing outcomes to one’s own actions External locus of control –attributing outcomes to circumstances beyond one’s control
3-28 Attitudes Attitude –learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object
3-29 Intelligence –capacity for constructive thinking, reasoning, and problem solving
3-30 Positive and Negative Emotions Emotions –complex human reactions to personal achievements and setbacks that may be felt and displayed
3-31 Emotional Intelligence –ability to manage oneself and interact with others in mature and constructive ways
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