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© 2008The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Key Individual Differences and the Road to Success Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Presentation on theme: "© 2008The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Key Individual Differences and the Road to Success Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,"— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2008The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Key Individual Differences and the Road to Success Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2 Ch. 5 Learning Objectives 1.Define self-esteem, and explain how it can be improved with Branden’s six pillars of self-esteem. 2.Define self-efficacy, and explain its sources. 3.Contrast high and low self-monitoring individuals, and discuss the ethical implications of organizational identification. 4.Identify and describe the Big Five personality dimensions, and specify which one is correlated most strongly with job performance. 5.Describe the proactive personality and internal locus of control. 5-2

3 Ch. 5 Learning Objectives 6.Identify at least five of Gardner’s eight multiple intelligences, and explain “practical intelligence.” 7.Distinguish between positive and negative emotions, and explain how they can be judged. 8.Identify the four key components of emotional intelligence, and discuss the practical significance of emotional contagion and emotional labor. 9.Explain how psychological capital, deliberate practice, luck, and humility can pave your road to success. 5-3

4 Individual Differences 5-4

5 Self-Esteem Self-Esteem one’s overall self-evaluation What would a person with high self-esteem say? a.I feel I am a person of worth, the equal of other people. b.I feel I do not have much to be proud of. 5-5

6 Branden’s Six Pillars of Self Esteem Be actively and fully engaged in what you do and with whom you interact. Live consciously. Don’t be overly judgmental or critical of your thoughts and actions. Be self-accepting. Take full responsibility for your decisions and actions in life’s journey. Take personal responsibility. 5-6

7 Branden’s Six Pillars of Self Esteem Be authentic and willing to defend your beliefs when interacting with others, rather than bending to their will to be accepted or liked. Be self –assertive. Have clear near-term and long-term goals and realistic plans for achieving them to create a sense of control over your life. Live purposefully. Be true to your word and your values. Have personal integrity. 5-7

8 Self Efficacy Self Efficacy is a person’s belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task “Once you realize there are no geniuses out there, you can think, ‘I can do that.’ One reason I’ve succeeded is I have that naïve sense of entitlement.” Donny Deutsch, Deutsch, Inc. 5-8

9 Effects of High Self-Efficacy Prior Experience Sources of Self- Efficacy Beliefs FeedbackBehavioral PatternsResults High “I know I can do this job” Self-efficacy beliefs Success  Be active—select best opportunities  Manage the situation— avoid or neutralize obstacles  Set goals—establish standards  Plan, prepare, practice  Try hard: persevere  Creatively solve problems  Learn from setbacks  Visualize success  Limit Stress Behavior Models Persuasion from Others Assessment of physical/ emotional state 5-9

10 Effects of Low Self-Efficacy Sources of Self- Efficacy Beliefs FeedbackBehavioral Patterns Results Self-efficacy beliefs  Be passive  Avoid difficult tasks  Develop weak aspirations and low commitment  Focus on personal deficiencies  Don’t even try—make a weak effort  Quit or become discouraged because of setbacks  Blame setbacks on lack of ability or bad luck  Worry, experience stress, become depressed  Think of excuses for failing Low “I don’t think I can get the job done” Failure Prior Experience Behavior Models Persuasion from Others Assessment of physical/ emotional state 5-10

11 Self-Monitoring Self-Monitoring: Observing one’s own behavior and adapting it to the situation What are the dangers of being a: High Self-Monitor? Low Self-Monitor? Is high or low-self-monitoring related to job success? 5-11

12 Self-Monitoring Assessment You are a new sales person and just made a huge sale and are very excited. You run into your boss’s office and start to tell her but she keeps looking at the computer. You… a.Keep telling her about the sale excitedly – you know she wants to know. b.Say, “I’m sorry, did I catch you at a bad time?” 5-12

13 The Big Five Personality Dimensions Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad minded 1) Openness to experience Relaxed, secure, unworried 5) Neuroticism/Emotional stability Dependable, responsible, achievement, oriented, persistent 2) Conscientiousness Trusting, good natured, cooperative, soft hearted 4) Agreeableness Outgoing, talkative, social, assertive 3) Extraversion Characteristics of a Person Scoring Positively on the Dimension Personality Dimension Remember acronym “OCEAN” 5-13

14 Test Your Knowledge Which two of the Big Five personality traits were found to be the most stable? A.Conscientiousness & Emotional Stability B.Openness to Experience & Agreeableness C.Extraversion & Conscientiousness D.Agreeableness & Conscientiousness 5-14

15 Proactive Personality Action-oriented person who shows initiative and perseveres to change things Common trait of entrepreneurs Demonstrates resiliency : The ability to handle pressure and quickly bounce back from personal and career set-backs 5-15

16 Locus of Control External Locus of Control one’s life outcomes attributed to environmental factors such as luck or fate Internal Locus of Control belief that one controls key events and consequences in one’s life. 5-16

17 Implications of Personality at Work Overall the relationship between personality and job performance is……. Which of the Big Five dimensions is most strongly related to job performance? Should personality tests be used to make hiring decisions? 5-17

18 How to Use Personality Testing in the Workplace 5-18

19 Test Your Knowledge Which of the following traits would best predict one’s motivation level at work? a.Internal locus of control b.Intelligence c.Agreeableness d.External locus of control 5-19

20 Contributors to Performance Ability Skill Performance Effort 5-20

21 Threat to Performance Staying awake 24 hours impairs cognitive psychomotor performance to the same degree as having a _____% blood alcohol level. a..001 b..01 c..1 d.1.0 5-21

22 Intelligence Charles Spearman’s work General mental ability Specific mental ability Intelligence-related predictors of job performance: Numerical ability Spatial ability Inductive reasoning 5-22

23 Mental Abilities Underlying Performance 1)Verbal comprehension 2)Word fluency 3)Numerical 4)Spatial 5)Memory 6)Perceptual speed 7)Inductive reasoning 5-23

24 Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner’s Work 1.Linguistic intelligence 2.Logical-mathematical intelligence 3.Musical intelligence 4.Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence 5.Spatial intelligence 6.Interpersonal intelligence 7.Naturalist intelligence 8.Intrapersonal intelligence 5-24

25 Positive and Negative Emotions Happiness /Joy Pride Love/ affection Relief Anger Fright/ anxiety Guilt/ shame Sadness Envy/ jealousy Disgust Negative Emotions (goal incongruent) Positive Emotions (goal congruent) 5-25

26 Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence ability to manage oneself and interact with others in a constructive way 5-26

27 Test Your Knowledge True (A) or False (B) 1.Emotions are contagious 2.Masking one’s true feelings may cause long-term psychological and physical problems. 3.Women’s felt emotions are no different than men’s. 5-27

28 Test Your Knowledge 1.I’m good at math 2.I’m a dependable, responsible person 3.I know when to speak up and when not to during work meetings 4.I effectively keep my emotions under control 5.I am a person of worth 6.I believe I am the cause of the good or bad things that happen to me A.High Self-Esteem B.High Self-Monitor C.High Internal Locus of Control D.High Self-Efficacy E.High Conscientiousness F.High Emotional Intelligence 5-28

29 Paving the Road to Success Striving for success by developing one’s self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resiliency Psychological Capital A demanding, repetitive, and assisted program to improve one’s performance Deliberate Practice Lucky people make their own good fortune Luck A realistic assessment of one’s own contribution and the recognition of the contribution of others and luck to one’s success Humility 5-29

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