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Distinguish between self-esteem and self-efficacy. Contrast high and low self-monitoring individuals, and describe resulting problems each may have. Explain.

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Presentation on theme: "Distinguish between self-esteem and self-efficacy. Contrast high and low self-monitoring individuals, and describe resulting problems each may have. Explain."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Distinguish between self-esteem and self-efficacy. Contrast high and low self-monitoring individuals, and describe resulting problems each may have. Explain the social learning model of self- management. Identify and describe the Big Five personality dimensions, specify which one is correlated most strongly with job performance, and describe the proactive personality. Explain the difference between an internal and external locus of control. Explain the concepts of emotional contagion and emotional labor, and identify the four components of emotional intelligence Appreciating Individual Differences: Self-Concept, Personality, Emotions Learning Objectives Chapter Five

3 5-1 Figure 5-1 An OB Model for Studying Individual Differences McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Personality traits Self Concept Self-esteem Self-efficacy Self-monitoring The Unique IndividualForms of Self- Expression Attitudes Abilities Emotions Self-Management McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 Self-concept is a person’s self-perception as a physical, social, spiritual being. Cognitions are a person’s knowledge, opinions, or beliefs. Self-esteem is one’s overall self-evaluation. 5-2 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. From Self-Concept to Self-Management McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5 5-3 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Skills & Best Practices: How to Build Self-Esteem in Yourself and Others 1. Live consciously 2. Be self-accepting 3. Take personal responsibility 4. Be self-assertive 5. Live purposefully 6. Have personal integrity McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

6 Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s ability to do a task 5-4 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Efficacy (“I can do that.”) McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

7 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5-5 Figure 5-2 Self-Efficacy Beliefs Pave the Way for Success or Failure McGraw-Hill Prior experience Behavior models Persuasion From Others Assessment Of Physical Emotional State Sources of Self- Efficacy Beliefs FeedbackResults High “I know I can do this job Self-efficacy Beliefs Low “I don’t think I can get the job done.” Behavior Patterns Behavior Patterns Success Failure

8 Self-monitoring is observing one’s own behavior and adapting it to the situation 5-6 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Monitoring McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 5-7 Figure 5-3 A Social Learning Model of Self-Management McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Person (Psychological self ) Situational cues Consequences Behavior McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

10 5-8 Table 5-1 Covey’s Seven Habits: An Agenda for Managerial Self-Improvement 1. Be proactive 2. Being with the end in mind 3. Put first things first 4. Think win/win 5. Seek first to understand, then to be understood 6. Synergize 7. Sharpen the saw McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 5-9 Table 5-2 The Big Five Personality Dimensions McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad-minded Openness to experience Relaxed, secure, unworriedEmotional stability Trusting, good-natured, cooperative, softhearted Agreeableness Outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive Extraversion CharacteristicsPersonality Dimension Dependable, responsible, achievement oriented, persistent Conscientiousness McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

12 A Proactive Personality is an action-oriented person who shows initiative and perseveres to change things McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Proactive Personality McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 5-11 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Locus of Control External locus of control: One’s life outcomes attributed to environmental factors such as luck or fate. Internal locus of control: belief that one controls key events and consequences in one’s life. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 5-12 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Skills & Best Practices: How Lucky People Make Their Own Luck 1. Maximize chance opportunities 2. Listen to your lucky hunches 3. Expect good fortune 4. Turn bad luck into good McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

15 5-13 Table 5-3 Seven Major Mental Abilities McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Able to perceive spatial patterns and to visualize how geometric shapes would look if transformed in shape and position Spatial Ability to make quick and accurate arithmetic computations such as adding and subtracting Numerical Ability to produce isolated words that fulfill symbolic or structural requirements Word fluency Understanding what words mean and readily comprehending what is read Verbal comprehension DescriptionAbility McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 5-14 Table 5-3 Seven Major Mental Abilities (Cont.) McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ability to reason from specifics to general conclusions Inductive reasoning Ability to perceive figures, identify similarities and differences, and carry out tasks involving visual perception Perceptual speed DescriptionAbility Having good memory for paired words, symbols, lists of numbers, or other associated items Memory McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 5-15 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Positive and Negative Emotions Negative emotions (Goal incongruent): - Anger- Fright/anxiety - Guilt/shame- Sadness - Envy/jealousy- Disgust Positive emotions (Goal congruent) - Happiness/joy- Pride - Love/affection- Relief McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 Emotional Intelligence is the ability to manage oneself and interact with others in mature and constructive ways 5-16 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Emotional Intelligence McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 5-17 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Skills & Best Practices: How to Develop Personal and Social Competence Through Emotional Intelligence Personal Competence Self-Awareness Emotional self-awareness Accurate self-assessment Self-confidence Self-Management Emotional self-control Transparency Adaptability Achievement Initiative Optimism Social Competence Social Awareness Empathy Organizational awareness Service Relationship Management Inspirational leadership Influence Developing others Change catalyst Conflict management Building bonds Teamwork and collaboration McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


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