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The Futures – units 4 and 5 of grammar books Old futures and new futures…

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1 The Futures – units 4 and 5 of grammar books Old futures and new futures…

2 Expressing predictions (pages 72-73) When based on guesswork, analysis or judgement use will/won’t: I think I’ll pass this exam.  If there is evidence in the present to justify the prediction, use be going to: Look at those black clouds. It’s going to rain.  To express a temporary action in progress at a particular point in the future use future continuous (will + be +..ing): This time next Tuesday afternoon I’ll be lying on the beach.  Use will/won’t have + past participle (the future perfect) to make predictions about actions which we expect to be completed by a particular time in the future: He’ll have had the operation by May and should be a lot fitter then.

3 Decisions and intentions (pages 73-74) Use will/won’t + bare infinitive to talk about a decision made at the time of speaking Use be going to + infinitive for actions that have already been decided on: He’s going to study environmental law next year.

4 Arrangements (page 74) Use the present continuous to describe an event in the future which has already been arranged by the time of speaking: We’re seeing a musical at the theatre next week.  We can also use will/won’t + verb + -ing (the future continuous) to talk about events that are a result of or part of an arrangement made in the past: Trains won’t be running between East Putney and Putney Bridge this weekend due to essential track repairs.

5 Other future meanings (page 75) Use of present simple to talk about timetabled events Use of will/won’t be + verb + -ing for future events we see as certain because they are part of a routine, such as a festival: Winston will be performing with his steel band every night of the music festival.  Use of certain adverbs such as definitely, certainly, probably, possibly to make predictions stronger or weaker.  Use of an introductory verb for example, hope, expect, promise, to show our attitude to a future event  Use of present form in time clauses (when, after, as soon as, once, until) to indicate a future meaning: Won’t the park look good once the new trees reach maturity?

6 Expressions with future meaning (pages 80-81) Use of be to + infinitive to talk about official arrangements in the future: The President is to hold an official reception for the visitors. This is typical of newspaper articles.  Use of be due to to talk about an event which forms part of a timetable, although it is possible that the timetable may change: Road repairs are due to start on 26 th May.  Use of be about to to talk about an event that we intend or expect to happen in the near future and may or may not be planned, although evidence in the present indicates that it will happen: Please take your seats. The performance is about to start.  Use of be likely to + infinitive to say that something in the future is probable: The payment is likely to take ten days.

7 Verbs with future meanings(page 81) Some verbs contain an implied future in their meaning: decide, hope, intend, promise, swear to…/ anticipate, predict, envisage –ing/ arrange, expect, guarantee, plan, undertake to… Many modal verbs can refer to the future, usually expressing a degree of possibility or probability: may, might, should..

8 Future in the past (page 82) Use of was/were going to to describe an unfulfilled action: I was going to get up early this morning but the alarm didn’t go off! Other ways include: past continuous, would, would be + - ing, would have + pp, was/were about to/due to, was/were to…


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