Presentation on theme: "World War One Wilson did not want to enter into the war because public opinion was basically isolationist. No one could put a good case for the US entering."— Presentation transcript:
World War One Wilson did not want to enter into the war because public opinion was basically isolationist. No one could put a good case for the US entering the war during its early stages. Was far away, and involved territorial disputes and balance of power politics that did not seem to impinge upon US interests. Therefore Wilson and Congress affirmed US neutrality – Wilson emphasized this during the 1916 presidential campaign
Trade Interests However, as part of neutrality, insisted, as during Napoleonic War, with trading with both sides With the British blockade of mainland, this meant mostly trade with GB and allies. Did not sit well with Germany, who was trying a blockade of its own through use of submarines
Entry into the War In 1917, Germany declared unrestricted submarine warfare, and US began arming merchant ships. After a series of losses, US declared war on Germany (who knew it was inevitable, but thought it could defeat the allies before meaningful help could arrive from the US).
Major Reasons for Entering the War 1. To protect national interests in the form of economic trade lines, as was the case in war with Barbary pirates and War of 1812—public opinion outraged. 2. Natural sympathy toward GB and France Assertiveness of US as a Great Power—wanted, eventually, a stake in the outcome in Europe, and particularly didn’t want to see Germany become hegemonic in Europe. A gradual realization that interests in Asia and in South America, as well as Europe, were at stake. A broadening of scope of geographical interests
Experience of War 1. C ostly in men and equipment, viewed as a slaughter 2. Didn’t have a convincing outcome—“armistice” didn’t give allies feeling of total victory, while socialist outbreaks in Germany and Austria-Hungary scared everyone, particularly given the successful Bolshevik revolution in Russia. Had included US, British intervention in Russia on the side of the White forces. 3. Didn’t have a “moral” outcome in US point of view— Germany punished too harshly, and its colonies weren’t freed, but turned over to other colonial powers.
Peace 1. Wilson unable to get peace on the terms he wanted—non-punitive, implementation of the principle of national self-determination, end of hostile alliances. Had to compromise on the idealistic “14 Points” which he formulated as US war aims. 2. US failed to ratify Versailles Treaty, on the basis of the harshness of terms, and the acceptance of the League of Nations as an international body (which had been Wilson’s idea).
Interwar Period 1. Began with Coolidge’s administration, which emphasized “normalcy”. This could be translated as a non-activist policy. 2. Only limited cooperation with League of Nations, mostly with regard to international criminal activities.
Activities in Interwar Period 1. Did become involved in international treaties, though no alliances, mostly aimed at keeping the world environment stable, so as not to drag the US into another war: a) Agreement at Washington Conference of 1921-1922, which set limits on building of capital navy ships, freezing overall tonnage at the current level.
Activities b)Four-Power Treaty of 1921—Britain, Japan, France and US agreed to respect each other’s possessions in the Pacific c)Nine-Power Treaty (4 + Belgium, China, Italy, the Netherlands, and Portugal)—respect for the sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity of China d) Kellog-Briand Pact of 1928—60 nations renounced war as an instrument of foreign policy.
Activities 4) Disputes with both allies and Germany over war loans and reparations—US wanted loans repaid, didn’t care about reparations; France and England wanted reparations, didn’t want to repay loans to US because thought that US profited from war. 5) Policy of economic protectionism, as Fordney- McCumber Act of 1922 and Hawley-Smoot Act of 1930 raised tariffs on imports, also contributing to tensions with Europeans and to the onset of the Depression
Destabilizing Factors Between the Wars 1) Presence of the Soviet Union as an “alien” state which posed a threat to the conservative mindset of Europe. 2) Expansion of Japan as a major power in Asia and the Atlantic area. Invasion of China 3) Terms of the Treaty of Versailles, which made created grievances in Germany 4) Great Depression, which pushed US more inward, made Britain and France internationally unpredictable, destabilized the Weimar Republic in Germany, and helped bring Hitler to power.
Roosevelt’s Early Foreign Policy 1) Continued policy of limited engagement in international affairs—tended to reinforce the economic isolation of his predecessors. 2)Continued earlier policies of improving relations with South American neighbors: a) Agreed in 1933 to a policy of non-intervention in state affairs b) Withdrew military forces from Nicaragua in 1933, and from Haiti in 1934, as conditions there had stabilized. c) Negotiated for an end to occupation in Panama, and for the joint defense of the canal.
Roosevelt’s Early Foreign Policy 1)Set in motion the independence of the Philippines 2)Recognition of Soviet Union in 1933, partly out of mutual fear of Japanese. Able to overcome years of apprehension, squabbles over Tsarist debts, and impact of the early purges. Also thought that USSR could become an important market for US goods, but didn’t develop that way. Points of the recognition: a) No Soviet propaganda in US b) Religious freedom for US citizens in USSR c) To have an agreement guaranteeing fair trial for US citizens accused of crimes in USSR d) Deal with question of debts