Presentation on theme: "George Washington’s Biography Video Clip George Washington’s Presidency April 30, 1789 Washington (Virginia) is inaugurated (sworn in) as President."— Presentation transcript:
George Washington’s Biography Video Clip
George Washington’s Presidency April 30, 1789 Washington (Virginia) is inaugurated (sworn in) as President. John Adams (Mass.) becomes the Vice- President.
George Washington’s Presidency Washington establishes many presidential precedents. PRECEDENT: an example that would become a standard practice.
Title – What was he called Congress agrees to call Washington “Mr. President” –(even though some wanted a title such as your “His High Mightiness “)
Leadership Style- Formal –Wore his sword –Bowed instead of shaking hands –Stood on a platform to greet visitors
Establishment of the Presidential Cabinet A.The Constitution allows Congress to create departments to help the President – the Cabinet. B.The first Presidential Cabinet had four departments:
Secretary of State (Thomas Jefferson) oversee the relations between the U.S. and other countries. The First Presidential Cabinet
Secretary of War (Henry Knox) oversee the nation’s defenses.
Secretary of the Treasury (Alexander Hamilton) to manage the government’s money. The First Presidential Cabinet
Attorney General (Edmond Randolph) to advise the government on legal matters. The First Presidential Cabinet
Terms in Office Washington chose to only serve two terms and then return home. This was followed by presidents for the most part up until the early 1900’s
Farewell Address last formal address as President of the US in which the out going President gives advice to future presidents. –Warned against political parties –Urged US to remain neutral –Don’t OVERTAX the American people!
Washington’s Foreign and Domestic Policy Foreign Policy – Policies or decisions dealing with other (foreign) countries. Domestic Policy – Policies or decisions dealing with issues within the country.
US is Neutral (taking neither side in conflict) The United States would not get involved in the War between France and Britain Neutrality – the U.S. would not side with any European country in wartime Believed the United States was too fragile to get involved.
Ohio River Valley British forts in the Ohio River Valley were not evacuated (still occupied by British Soldiers) after the war. Jay’s Treaty (1795) required the British to finally leave the US
Spanish Florida Pinckney’s Treaty –Americans can travel freely on the Mississippi River –No custom duties at the port of New Orleans –31 st parallel is the northern border of Florida
Establishment of the Court System Federal Judiciary Act of 1789: passed by Congress. 1.Created an independent federal court system with the Supreme Court and lower level District courts.
2.The U.S. Supreme Court is to have a Chief Justice and five associate justices. Currently we have 9 total justices. 3.Washington appoints John Jay as Chief Justice.
MONEY Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury –Proposal to strengthen the economy (financial system) National Taxes National Bank Protective Tariffs
Hamilton’s Financial Plan - Cont Raise money through taxes- Money would be used to pay off war debt and help stabilize the young country
Hamilton’s Financial Plan - Cont Create a NATIONAL BANK: 1.safe place to keep the government’s money. 2.can make loans to businesses. 3.would issue paper currency. 4.strengthen the federal government.
Hamilton’s Financial Plan - Cont Impose Tariffs (a tax) on imported goods Raises money for US government Encourage growth of US industry Encourage people to buy American goods
Opposition to Hamilton’s plan Led by James Madison & Thomas Jefferson Many Southern states had paid off their debt and did not want to pay off northern states debts also Southerners thought that northern speculators would get rich by buying up bonds Southern states did not like a tariff because they had few factories and this meant they would pay higher prices for goods..
Compromise If the Southerners voted for Hamilton’s plan he would push for a national capital in the South 1790 Hamilton’s financial plan is approved and the national capital is moved to an area between Maryland and Virginia along the Potomac River called the district of Columbia
Strength of the National Government –Excise Tax Tax on production or sale of Luxury goods including: –Carriages –Whiskey
Whiskey Rebellion Farmers protest – This was a means of raising money for them Washington (as President) led 13,000 troops crush rebellion National government proved its ability to enforce laws. (opposite of Shay’s Rebellion which proved that the national government COULD NOT enforce the law and protect the people)
Development of Political Parties The original political parties formed over differences of opinion between two individuals in Washington’s Cabinet –Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton Political parties are basically a group of people who feel the same way about how the country should be run.
Federalists Led by Alexander Hamilton Supported a: –STRONG NATIONAL GOVERNMENT –national bank –LOOSE interpretation of the Constitution –Supported by industrialists –Protective tariffs –Friends with the British
Democratic-Republicans Led by Thomas Jefferson Supported a: –STRONG STATE GOVERNMENT –Supported State Banks –Strict interpretation of the Constitution –Supported by Farmers (COMMON FOLKS) –Free Trade (no tariffs) –Friends with France