2George Washington’s Presidency April 30, 1789 Washington (Virginia) is inaugurated (sworn in) as President.John Adams (Mass.) becomes the Vice-President.
3George Washington’s Presidency Washington establishes many presidential precedents.PRECEDENT: an example that would become a standard practice.
4Title – What was he called Congress agrees to call Washington “Mr. President”(even though some wanted a title such as your “His High Mightiness “)
5Leadership Style- Formal Wore his swordBowed instead of shaking handsStood on a platform to greet visitors
6Establishment of the Presidential Cabinet The Constitution allows Congress to create departments to help the President – the Cabinet.The first Presidential Cabinet had four departments:
7The First Presidential Cabinet Secretary of State (Thomas Jefferson) oversee the relations between the U.S. and other countries.
8The First Presidential Cabinet Secretary of War (Henry Knox) oversee the nation’s defenses.
9The First Presidential Cabinet Secretary of the Treasury (Alexander Hamilton) to manage the government’s money.
10The First Presidential Cabinet Attorney General (Edmond Randolph) to advise the government on legal matters.
11Terms in OfficeWashington chose to only serve two terms and then return home. This was followed by presidents for the most part up until the early 1900’s
12Farewell Addresslast formal address as President of the US in which the out going President gives advice to future presidents.Warned against political partiesUrged US to remain neutralDon’t OVERTAX the American people!
13Washington’s Foreign and Domestic Policy Foreign Policy – Policies or decisions dealing with other (foreign) countries.Domestic Policy – Policies or decisions dealing with issues within the country.
15US is Neutral (taking neither side in conflict) The United States would not get involved in the War between France and BritainNeutrality – the U.S. would not side with any European country in wartimeBelieved the United States was too fragile to get involved.
16Ohio River ValleyBritish forts in the Ohio River Valley were not evacuated (still occupied by British Soldiers) after the war.Jay’s Treaty (1795) required the British to finally leave the US
17Spanish Florida Pinckney’s Treaty Americans can travel freely on the Mississippi RiverNo custom duties at the port of New Orleans31st parallel is the northern border of Florida
19Establishment of the Court System Federal Judiciary Act of 1789: passed by Congress.Created an independent federal court system with the Supreme Court and lower level Districtcourts.
20The U.S. Supreme Court is to have a Chief Justice and five associate justices. Currently we have 9 total justices.Washington appoints John Jay as Chief Justice.
21MONEY Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury Proposal to strengthen the economy (financial system)National TaxesNational BankProtective Tariffs
22Hamilton’s Financial Plan - Cont Raise money through taxes-Money would be used to pay off war debt and help stabilize the young country
23Hamilton’s Financial Plan - Cont Create a NATIONAL BANK:safe place to keep the government’s money.can make loans to businesses.would issue paper currency.strengthen the federal government.
24Hamilton’s Financial Plan - Cont Impose Tariffs (a tax) on imported goodsRaises money for US governmentEncourage growth of US industryEncourage people to buy American goods
25Opposition to Hamilton’s plan Led by James Madison & Thomas JeffersonMany Southern states had paid off their debt and did not want to pay off northern states debts alsoSoutherners thought that northern speculators would get rich by buying up bondsSouthern states did not like a tariff because they had few factories and this meant they would pay higher prices for goods..
26CompromiseIf the Southerners voted for Hamilton’s plan he would push for a national capital in the South1790 Hamilton’s financial plan is approved and the national capital is moved to an area between Maryland and Virginia along the Potomac River called the district of Columbia
27Strength of the National Government Excise TaxTax on production or sale of Luxury goods including:CarriagesWhiskey
28Whiskey RebellionFarmers protest – This was a means of raising money for themWashington (as President) led 13,000 troops crush rebellionNational government proved its ability to enforce laws. (opposite of Shay’s Rebellion which proved that the national government COULD NOT enforce the law and protect the people)
29Development of Political Parties The original political parties formed over differences of opinion between two individuals in Washington’s CabinetThomas Jefferson and Alexander HamiltonPolitical parties are basically a group of people who feel the same way about how the country should be run.
30Federalists Led by Alexander Hamilton Supported a: STRONG NATIONAL GOVERNMENTnational bankLOOSE interpretation of the ConstitutionSupported by industrialistsProtective tariffsFriends with the British
31Democratic-Republicans Led by Thomas JeffersonSupported a:STRONG STATE GOVERNMENTSupported State BanksStrict interpretation of the ConstitutionSupported by Farmers (COMMON FOLKS)Free Trade (no tariffs)Friends with France