Presentation on theme: "I. George Washington as President ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1I. George Washington as President (1789-1797) New Government is LaunchedBattling the National DebtBuilding up the EconomyThe Whiskey RebellionForeign PolicyPrecedents (examples) set by Washington
2New Government is Launched - Washington’s inauguration (ceremony at which the President officially takes the oath of office) was on 4/30/1789 in NYCIn 1789, Congress created the first Cabinet (officials who head government departments and advise the President) because Washington needed help carrying out his dutiesPresident Obama’s Cabinet:In 1789, Congress passed the Judiciary Act, the law that organized the federal court system. John Jay was named Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (highest court in the land)
3Cabinet: group of advisors to the President Washington's Cabinet was made up of the best minds of the timeJohn Adams served as Vice PresidentThomas Jefferson as Secretary of StateEdmund Randolph as Attorney GeneralAlexander Hamilton as Secretary of the TreasuryHenry Knox as Secretary of WarLeft to right: President Washington, Secretary of War Henry Knox, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, and Attorney General Edmund Randolph
4Time to Review Why was a Cabinet created? Indentify three men, and the positions they held, in Washington’s Cabinet.Identify three current members (and the positions they hold) of President Obama’s Cabinet.
5B. Battling the National Debt The U.S. borrowed $ from foreign countries and individuals to pay for soldiers and supplies during the Revolutionary WarAlexander Hamilton planned to pay off this debt by borrowing money in order to buy up all of the old war bonds, and so the national government pay off state debtsA bond is a certificate that promises to pay the holder the money loaned plus interest by a certain date
6Some people opposed Hamilton’s plan to buy up all of the old war bonds because they felt it rewarded speculators (someone willing to invest in a risky venture in hopes of making a great profit)Madison
7This became the District of Columbia, the city of Washington D.C. How did Hamilton win Southern support for his plan of assuming all state debts?Southern states opposed Hamilton’s plan because they had already paid their debts and felt northern states should do the same.To win Southern support for his plan of paying off all state debts, Hamilton proposed that the new nation’s capital city be located in the South.In July 1790, Congress voted to repay state debts and move the capital to a strip of land between Virginia and Maryland.This became the District of Columbia, the city of Washington D.C.
8C. Building up the Economy Congress set up the Bank of the United States in Tax money could be deposited into the bank and then the bank could issue loans to farmers and businessesIn February 1791, the First Bank of the U.S. received a national charter for 20 years.
9Building up the Economy Continued Hamilton proposed a tariff to help fix the economyWhat is a tariff?Price of steel imported from Great Britain: $100Tariff of $20 placed on imported steel from Great Britain, making the price $120Price of steel made in USA: $110Which steel would you buy? Who does a tariff benefit?
10C. Building up the Economy Continued Hamilton proposed a tariff, or tax, be placed on imported goods. This tax would be a protective tariff, because it would protect American industries from foreign competitionNortherners supported tariffs because new factories were being built there; southerners opposed tariffs because they did not want to pay more for foreign goodsCongress did eventually passed a tariff but it was MUCH lower then what Hamilton had proposed
11Time to ReviewWhy did Hamilton want to repay the national and state debts?How did Hamilton plan to strengthen the economy?Why did many southerners oppose protective tariffs?
12D. The Whiskey Rebellion Congress passed a bill that taxed all liquor in the U.S in order to raise $ for the governmentFarmers were angered by this because they often converted their corn into Whiskey because it was easier to ship to markets in the EastFarmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against the taxWashington called up the militia and put down the rebellionThis proved that the new government could respond quickly in times of crisis
13E. Foreign PolicyThe French Revolution began in France in 1789 and became VERY violent by the 1790sEuropean countries (like Britain) tried to help put down the RevolutionSome Americans felt the U.S. should support the revolution while others felt that it was too violent and doomed to failWashington issued the neutrality proclamation, which stated that the U.S. would not support either side of the war in EuropeBritain and France ignored the Neutrality proclamation and seized American ships that were heading to their enemy’s portIn 1793, British ships captured American ships trading with the French; some Americans wanted warWar was avoided when Congress approved Jay’s Treaty, which required Britain to pay damages for ships seized in 1793, and give up remaining forts in Ohio River Valley. Americans had to pay off old debts to British merchants
14F. PrecedentsA Precedent is an act or decision that sets an example for others to followPrecedents set by Washington: appointed a Cabinet of advisors, remained neutral, chose the simple title of “President”, and did not seek a third term as PresidentIn Washington’s Farewell Address, he urged the U.S to remain neutral in foreign affairs, and to avoid political parties
15Time to Review Why did Washington issue the Neutrality Proclamation? How did Britain and France respond to the Neutrality Proclamation?How did Congress avoid war with Britain in 1793?What were two pieces of advice Washington gave in his Farewell Address?
16Issue #2: Should the United States remain neutral in foreign affairs? Directions: Choose one of the issues listed below. Write a one paragraph response in which you state and defend your position.Issue #1: Should the government have the right to tax its citizens on the goods they buy?Issue #2: Should the United States remain neutral in foreign affairs?Issue #3: Should a President be allowed to serve more than 2 terms?