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PowerPoint Slides to Accompany Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers Seventh Edition Paul A. Alberto Anne C. Troutman ISBN: Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.
Chapter 6 Developing a Hypothesis for Behavior Change: Functional Assessment and Functional Analysis Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.
Antecedents to Inappropriate Behavior A. Frustration due to: –Response Ignorance –Complex materials, lacking in appropriate adaptations –Lack of functional vocabulary to communicate –Goal of performance interruption B. Understimulation: Boredom –Being ignored –Meaningless repetition beyond criterion –Nonfunctional activity –Pacing too slow C. Overstimulation –Environment: For example, number of students, noise –Rate of physical prompting or verbalizations –Pace of activity D. Environmental expectation or models Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.
Functions Served By Behavior A. Attention Seeking (positive reinforcement) –A communication attempt to indicate needs and wants –Historical/current pattern of positive reinforcement resulting in a means to access people, object, event –Inconsistent pattern of reinforcement or punishment B. Means of escape/avoidance (negative reinforcement) –External stimuli: touching, difficult task, change in routine, setting, physical discomfort, environmental discomfort, social embarrassment –Internal stimuli: earache, sinus pain, skin irritation, hunger, constipation, fatigue C. Sensory feedback/stimulation (automatic reinforcement) –To obtain reinforcement from internal stimulation D. Nature of current reinforcement: desirability, quantity, intensity, scheduling Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.
Behavior Support Plan Procedures Identify problem behavior –Develop operational definition –Collect initial confirming data –Notify IEP committee members Conduct screening –Request as needed: health, medications, physical, sensory, learning disability information –Implementation of changes based on screening Conduct functional assessment –Employ indirect information gathering strategies (informant assessment) –Employ direct information gathering strategies (descriptive assessment) –Formulate hypothesis of function Conduct functional analysis –Systematic manipulation of antecedents and consequences to determine their effect on occasioning and maintaining the target behavior –Formulate hypothesis of function Develop behavior support plan –Review hypothesis and select components of a behavior support plan –Collect and evaluate data –Maintain and generalize successful results and fade intervention as appropriate Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.
Terminology Functional Assessment: –Gathering information in order to form a hypothesis as to variables occasioning or maintaining a behavior. May be done by interview, checklist, or direct observation Functional Analysis –Procedures (usually reversal design or multielement design) that test a hypothesized relationship by manipulating the variables thought to occasion or maintain a behavior in order to verify a functional relationship. Setting events –Circumstances in an individuals life, ranging from cultural influences to an uncomfortable environment, that temporarily alter the power of reinforcers Analog –A setting sufficiently similar to a natural setting, such as a classroom or work site to allow inferences that what occurs in the analog setting may occur in the natural setting. Analog settings are often used for functional analysis. Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.
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