2 Training Objective Reinforcement/ Punishment Extinction Learn Basic ABA terms and understand how to apply ABA procedures.Reinforcement/ PunishmentExtinctionMotivating OperationShapingChainingPromptingData collection
3 Applied Behavior Analysis “ABA is the science in which tactics deprived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior.”(Cooper, Heron, & Howard, 1987)
4 Why ABA? It is way of life “IT WORKS!!!!!” Evidence Based Measureable ObservableData driven decision makingRepeatable
5 HistoryWatson: (Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It, 1913) S-R Behaviorism Skinner: (The Behavior of Organism, 1938) Respondent Conditioning Operant Conditioning Radical Behaviorism-include private events
8 Operant ConditioningArrangement of resulting stimuli/ consequences to change future occurrences of voluntary behaviorThree-term contingencyFour-term contingencyReinforcementPunishmentExtinction
9 Three-Term Contingency A(SD) – B(R) – C(SR+/SR-/SP+/SP-) Antecedent: a stimulus which occurs before a behavior Behavior/ Response: movement or action by an individual Consequences: a stimulus which is produced by a behavior
10 Four-Term Contingency MO A-B-CMotivating Operation (MO): the environmental changes that alter the reinforcing value of stimulus (and the frequency of a behavior)EO: Establishing OperationAO: Abolishing Operation
11 Stimulus ControlContingent Relationship between antecedent stimulus an a response (behavior): The presence of antecedent stimulus alter the behavior in frequency, duration, latency, or intensitySD (Discriminative Stimulus): in the presence a behavior will be reinforcedS∆: in the presence a behavior will not be reinforcedExamples: Sd (verbal direction, the presence of clerk…), Sdelta (
12 Responses/Behaviors Function-Based (obtain/escape/avoid) the purpose of the behavior/ effect on the environmentTopography-Basedthe shape or form of the behavior
13 Target BehaviorsAssessment (interview/ check list/ standardized test/ observation/ ecological assessment )To increase or to decreaseOperational DefinitionObjective: observable and measurableClarity: unfamiliar observers can identifyCompleteness: clear boundaries, time frameProvide concrete examples of a target behavior in order to minimize disagreements among observers as to the behavior’s occurance.
14 Reinforcement Future likelihood of behavior increases by Positive Reinforcement: the contingent presentation of a stimulus (SR+), immediately following a response (R)Negative Reinforcement: the contingent removal of an aversive stimulus (SR-) immediately following a response (R)
15 Reinforcers SR Primary/ Unconditioned (food, water, sleep, oxygen, warmth, sexual stimulation)Secondary/ Conditioned(edible, tangible, sensory, activity oriented, social, generalized)
16 Schedule of Reinforcement CRF: Continuous Reinforcement (FR1)INT: Intermittent Schedule of ReinforcementFR: Fixed Ratio ScheduleVR: Variable Ratio ScheduleFI: Fixed Interval ScheduleVI: Variable Interval ScheduleCompound Schedule (c.f. concurrent, multiple,chained, mixed, tandem, alternative)
18 Stimulus Preference Assessment AskTarget Person (open-ended, choice, rank-ordering)significant otherspretask choiceFree Operantcontrived observation (predetermined set)naturalistic observationTrial BasedSingle StimuliPaired StimuliMultiple StimuliPretask choice: choice from menuFree operantContrived observation: pre and non-contingent exposure to choicesNaturalistic observation: observation in natural environmentsTrial basedSingle stimuli: present a stimuli and record reactionPaired stimuli (forced choice): present 2 stimuli and record the stimulus chosenMultiple stimuli: present 3 or more stimuliGuidelinesEOCost-benefitRanking or no-rankingCombine with multiple assessment methods
19 Reinforcer Assessment Concurrent Schedule:two or more reinforcers for two or more behaviorsMultiple Schedule:two or more schedule of reinforcement for a behaviorProgressive Ratio Schedule:requirement for reinforcement will increase over timeConcurrent Schedule: compare effectiveness of two stimuliMultiple Schedule: Sd-R-Sr, S-R-NCRProgressive Ratio: response requirements for reinforcement are increased systematically over time independent of the participant’s behaviorFR1-FR2-FR5-FR10….
20 Use Reinforcers Effectively TimingConsistencyAmountQualityVariety (EO)NoveltyConcurrent ScheduleGeneralizationTiming: immediacy leads stronger contingent relationship between behavior and reinforcerConsistency: especially important during skill acquisitionAmount: balance between effort and consequenceQuality: individual preferenceVarietyNovelty: Hall and Hall (1980)Concurrent schedule: c.f. FR3 vs. VI2
21 Punishment Future likelihood of behavior will decrease by Positive Punishment: the contingent presentation of an aversive stimulus (SP+) immediately following a response (R)Negative Punishment: the contingent removal of a stimulus (SP-)immediately following a response (R)
23 ExtinctionThe frequency of the previously reinforced behavior decreases or ceases by discontinuing reinforcementPositive reinforcementescape extinctionsensory extinctionExtinction BurstSpontaneous Recovery
26 Data Collection Direct Measurement Direct Observational Recording Permanent Products (written sample)Direct Observational RecordingEvent RecordingDuration RecordingLatency RecordingInter Response Time (IRT)Interval Recording (whole or partial)Momentary Time Sampling
30 ShapingDifferential reinforcement of successive approximation to the terminal behaviorTopographyFrequencyLatencyDurationMagnitude
31 Prompting Response Prompts Pictorial/Textual Modeling Supplementary S to increase likelihood of correct responsesResponse PromptsPictorial/TextualVerbal (full or partial)ModelingPhysical guidance (Full or Partial)
32 Prompting Stimulus Prompts Movement cues/ Gestrual Position cues Redundancy cuescolorsizeshapeProvide response and stimulus prompts before or during the performance of a behavior. Response prompts operate directly on the response. Stimulus prompts operate directly on the antecedent task stimuli to cue a correct response in conjunction with the critical Sd.
34 Prompt Fading : Gradual Removal of prompts Most to Least Least to Most Decreasing AssistanceGraduated Guidance: fade physical promptsTime DelayIncreasing Assistance
35 Behavior Chain: a particular sequence of responses within a complex skill in which completion of a response serves as a conditioned reinforcer as well as a discriminative stimulus for the next response in the chain. S1 S2 S3 S4 R1 R2 R3 R4 SR
36 Task Analysis Example: TA for brushing teeth : breaking down a complex task into simple and smaller unitsExample:TA for brushing teeth
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