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Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed.,BCBA 1. Training Objective Learn Basic ABA terms and understand how to apply ABA procedures. Reinforcement/ Punishment Extinction.

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Presentation on theme: "Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed.,BCBA 1. Training Objective Learn Basic ABA terms and understand how to apply ABA procedures. Reinforcement/ Punishment Extinction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed.,BCBA 1

2 Training Objective Learn Basic ABA terms and understand how to apply ABA procedures. Reinforcement/ Punishment Extinction Motivating Operation Shaping Chaining Prompting Data collection 2

3 A pplied B ehavior A nalysis “ABA is the science in which tactics deprived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior.” (Cooper, Heron, & Howard, 1987) 3

4 Why ABA? It is way of life “IT WORKS!!!!!” Evidence Based Measureable Observable Data driven decision making Repeatable 4

5 History Watson: (Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It, 1913) S-R Behaviorism Skinner: (The Behavior of Organism, 1938) Respondent Conditioning Operant Conditioning Radical Behaviorism-include private events 5

6 Respondent Conditioning USUR NS USUR + NS 6

7 Respondent Conditioning US UR CS CR NS 7

8 Operant Conditioning Arrangement of resulting stimuli/ consequences to change future occurrences of voluntary behavior Three-term contingency Four-term contingency Reinforcement Punishment Extinction 8

9 Three-Term Contingency A(S D ) – B(R) – C(S R+ /S R- /S P+ /S P- ) Antecedent : a stimulus which occurs before a behavior Behavior/ Response : movement or action by an individual Consequences : a stimulus which is produced by a behavior 9

10 Four-Term Contingency MO A-B-C Motivating Operation (MO): the environmental changes that alter the reinforcing value of stimulus (and the frequency of a behavior) EO: Establishing Operation AO: Abolishing Operation 10

11 Stimulus Control Contingent Relationship between antecedent stimulus an a response (behavior): The presence of antecedent stimulus alter the behavior in frequency, duration, latency, or intensity S D (Discriminative Stimulus): in the presence a behavior will be reinforced S ∆ : in the presence a behavior will not be reinforced 11

12 Responses/Behaviors Function-Based (obtain/escape/avoid) the purpose of the behavior/ effect on the environment Topography-Based the shape or form of the behavior 12

13 Target Behaviors Assessment (interview/ check list/ standardized test/ observation/ ecological assessment ) To increase or to decrease Operational Definition Objective: observable and measurable Clarity: unfamiliar observers can identify Completeness: clear boundaries, time frame 13

14 Reinforcement Future likelihood of behavior increases by Positive Reinforcement: the contingent presentation of a stimulus (S R+ ), immediately following a response (R) Negative Reinforcement: the contingent removal of an aversive stimulus (S R- ) immediately following a response (R) 14

15 Reinforcers S R Primary/ Unconditioned (food, water, sleep, oxygen, warmth, sexual stimulation) Secondary/ Conditioned (edible, tangible, sensory, activity oriented, social, generalized) 15

16 Schedule of Reinforcement CRF: Continuous Reinforcement (FR1) INT: Intermittent Schedule of Reinforcement FR: Fixed Ratio Schedule VR: Variable Ratio Schedule FI: Fixed Interval Schedule VI: Variable Interval Schedule Compound Schedule (c.f. concurrent, multiple, chained, mixed, tandem, alternative) 16

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18 Stimulus Preference Assessment Ask Target Person (open-ended, choice, rank-ordering) significant others pretask choice Free Operant contrived observation (predetermined set) naturalistic observation Trial Based Single Stimuli Paired Stimuli Multiple Stimuli 18

19 Reinforcer Assessment Concurrent Schedule: two or more reinforcers for two or more behaviors Multiple Schedule: two or more schedule of reinforcement for a behavior Progressive Ratio Schedule: requirement for reinforcement will increase over time 19

20 Use Reinforcers Effectively Timing Consistency Amount Quality Variety (EO) Novelty Concurrent Schedule Generalization 20

21 Punishment Future likelihood of behavior will decrease by Positive Punishment: the contingent presentation of an aversive stimulus (S P+ ) immediately following a response (R) Negative Punishment: the contingent removal of a stimulus (S P- )immediately following a response (R) 21

22 Punisher SPSP Primary/ Unconditioned (pain, odors, tastes, physical restraint, loss of bodily support, extreme muscular effort) Secondary/ Conditioned ( reprimands, response blocking, contingent exercise, overcorrection-restitutional/positive practice) 22

23 Extinction The frequency of the previously reinforced behavior decreases or ceases by discontinuing reinforcement Positive reinforcement escape extinction sensory extinction Extinction Burst Spontaneous Recovery 23

24 24 Sessions Frequency of Hitting

25 Behavior Reduction Procedure Differential Reinforcement DRI: DRA: DRO (FI-DRO, VI-DRO, FM-DRO, VM- DRO) DRL (full-session DRL, interval DRL, spaced-responding DRL) 25

26 Data Collection Direct Measurement Permanent Products (written sample) Direct Observational Recording Event Recording Duration Recording Latency Recording Inter Response Time (IRT) Interval Recording (whole or partial) Momentary Time Sampling 26

27 Data Collection Summary Frequency/ Rate/ Percentage/ Fluency Graphing (independent variable/dependent variable) Interobserver Agreement (IOA) Analysis (base line/treatment, variability, trend- ascending/descending, level, internal/external validity) 27

28 Data Collection 28..\My Pictures\7-23-2008\data collection1.mpg..\My Pictures\7-23-2008\data collection2.mpg..\My Pictures\7-23-2008\Interval Recording video.mpg..\My Pictures\7-23-2008\Interval Recording video.mpg

29 Graphs 29

30 Shaping Differential reinforcement of successive approximation to the terminal behavior Topography Frequency Latency Duration Magnitude 30

31 Prompting Supplementary S to increase likelihood of correct responses Response Prompts Pictorial/Textual Verbal (full or partial) Modeling Physical guidance (Full or Partial) 31

32 Prompting Stimulus Pro mpts Movement cues/ Gestrual Position cues Redundancy cues color size shape 32

33 Examples Pictorial/ Textual Verbal Gestural Modeling Physical Guidance..\My Pictures\7-23- 2008\20080722111134.mpg..\My Pictures\7-23- 2008\20080722111134.mpg 33

34 Prompt Fading : Gradual Removal of prompts Most to Least Least to Most Decreasing Assistance Graduated Guidance: fade physical prompts Time Delay Increasing Assistance 34

35 Behavior Chain : a particular sequence of responses within a complex skill in which completion of a response serves as a conditioned reinforcer as well as a discriminative stimulus for the next response in the chain. S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 S R 35

36 Task Analysis : breaking down a complex task into simple and smaller units Example: TA for brushing teeth 36

37 Brushing Teeth hygiene\08071604.mpg 37

38 Teaching Behavior Chains Total-Task Chaining/ Total-Task Presentation Forward Chaining Backward Chaining: Backward Chaining with Leap Ahead 38

39 Developing Objectives Objectives include… Conditions: antecedents (given directions or situation) Student Behavior: observable, measurable /quantifiable Criterion: accuracy, frequency, duration, latency Let’s Develop Objectives for …. 39

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