Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PAAL Training ABA 101 Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed.,BCBA.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "PAAL Training ABA 101 Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed.,BCBA."— Presentation transcript:

1 PAAL Training ABA 101 Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed.,BCBA

2 Training Objective Reinforcement/ Punishment Extinction
Learn Basic ABA terms and understand how to apply ABA procedures. Reinforcement/ Punishment Extinction Motivating Operation Shaping Chaining Prompting Data collection

3 Applied Behavior Analysis
“ABA is the science in which tactics deprived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior.” (Cooper, Heron, & Howard, 1987)

4 Why ABA? It is way of life “IT WORKS!!!!!” Evidence Based Measureable
Observable Data driven decision making Repeatable

5 History Watson: (Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It, 1913) S-R Behaviorism Skinner: (The Behavior of Organism, 1938) Respondent Conditioning Operant Conditioning Radical Behaviorism-include private events

6 Respondent Conditioning

7 Respondent Conditioning

8 Operant Conditioning Arrangement of resulting stimuli/ consequences to change future occurrences of voluntary behavior Three-term contingency Four-term contingency Reinforcement Punishment Extinction

9 Three-Term Contingency
A(SD) – B(R) – C(SR+/SR-/SP+/SP-) Antecedent: a stimulus which occurs before a behavior Behavior/ Response: movement or action by an individual Consequences: a stimulus which is produced by a behavior

10 Four-Term Contingency
MO A-B-C Motivating Operation (MO): the environmental changes that alter the reinforcing value of stimulus (and the frequency of a behavior) EO: Establishing Operation AO: Abolishing Operation

11 Stimulus Control Contingent Relationship between antecedent stimulus an a response (behavior): The presence of antecedent stimulus alter the behavior in frequency, duration, latency, or intensity SD (Discriminative Stimulus): in the presence a behavior will be reinforced S∆: in the presence a behavior will not be reinforced Examples: Sd (verbal direction, the presence of clerk…), Sdelta (

12 Responses/Behaviors Function-Based (obtain/escape/avoid)
the purpose of the behavior/ effect on the environment Topography-Based the shape or form of the behavior

13 Target Behaviors Assessment (interview/ check list/ standardized test/ observation/ ecological assessment ) To increase or to decrease Operational Definition Objective: observable and measurable Clarity: unfamiliar observers can identify Completeness: clear boundaries, time frame Provide concrete examples of a target behavior in order to minimize disagreements among observers as to the behavior’s occurance.

14 Reinforcement Future likelihood of behavior increases by
Positive Reinforcement: the contingent presentation of a stimulus (SR+), immediately following a response (R) Negative Reinforcement: the contingent removal of an aversive stimulus (SR-) immediately following a response (R)

15 Reinforcers SR Primary/ Unconditioned
(food, water, sleep, oxygen, warmth, sexual stimulation) Secondary/ Conditioned (edible, tangible, sensory, activity oriented, social, generalized)

16 Schedule of Reinforcement
CRF: Continuous Reinforcement (FR1) INT: Intermittent Schedule of Reinforcement FR: Fixed Ratio Schedule VR: Variable Ratio Schedule FI: Fixed Interval Schedule VI: Variable Interval Schedule Compound Schedule (c.f. concurrent, multiple, chained, mixed, tandem, alternative)


18 Stimulus Preference Assessment
Ask Target Person (open-ended, choice, rank-ordering) significant others pretask choice Free Operant contrived observation (predetermined set) naturalistic observation Trial Based Single Stimuli Paired Stimuli Multiple Stimuli Pretask choice: choice from menu Free operant Contrived observation: pre and non-contingent exposure to choices Naturalistic observation: observation in natural environments Trial based Single stimuli: present a stimuli and record reaction Paired stimuli (forced choice): present 2 stimuli and record the stimulus chosen Multiple stimuli: present 3 or more stimuli Guidelines EO Cost-benefit Ranking or no-ranking Combine with multiple assessment methods

19 Reinforcer Assessment
Concurrent Schedule: two or more reinforcers for two or more behaviors Multiple Schedule: two or more schedule of reinforcement for a behavior Progressive Ratio Schedule: requirement for reinforcement will increase over time Concurrent Schedule: compare effectiveness of two stimuli Multiple Schedule: Sd-R-Sr, S-R-NCR Progressive Ratio: response requirements for reinforcement are increased systematically over time independent of the participant’s behavior FR1-FR2-FR5-FR10….

20 Use Reinforcers Effectively
Timing Consistency Amount Quality Variety (EO) Novelty Concurrent Schedule Generalization Timing: immediacy leads stronger contingent relationship between behavior and reinforcer Consistency: especially important during skill acquisition Amount: balance between effort and consequence Quality: individual preference Variety Novelty: Hall and Hall (1980) Concurrent schedule: c.f. FR3 vs. VI2

21 Punishment Future likelihood of behavior will decrease by
Positive Punishment: the contingent presentation of an aversive stimulus (SP+) immediately following a response (R) Negative Punishment: the contingent removal of a stimulus (SP-)immediately following a response (R)

22 Punisher SP Primary/ Unconditioned
(pain, odors, tastes, physical restraint, loss of bodily support, extreme muscular effort) Secondary/ Conditioned (reprimands, response blocking, contingent exercise, overcorrection-restitutional/positive practice)

23 Extinction The frequency of the previously reinforced behavior decreases or ceases by discontinuing reinforcement Positive reinforcement escape extinction sensory extinction Extinction Burst Spontaneous Recovery

24 Frequency of Hitting Sessions

25 Behavior Reduction Procedure
Differential Reinforcement DRI: DRA: DRO (FI-DRO, VI-DRO, FM-DRO, VM-DRO) DRL (full-session DRL, interval DRL, spaced-responding DRL)

26 Data Collection Direct Measurement Direct Observational Recording
Permanent Products (written sample) Direct Observational Recording Event Recording Duration Recording Latency Recording Inter Response Time (IRT) Interval Recording (whole or partial) Momentary Time Sampling

27 Data Collection Frequency/ Rate/ Percentage/ Fluency
Summary Frequency/ Rate/ Percentage/ Fluency Graphing (independent variable/dependent variable) Interobserver Agreement (IOA) Analysis (base line/treatment, variability, trend-ascending/descending, level, internal/external validity)

28 Data Collection ..\My Pictures\7-23-2008\data collection1.mpg
..\My Pictures\ \Interval Recording video.mpg

29 Graphs

30 Shaping Differential reinforcement of successive approximation to the terminal behavior Topography Frequency Latency Duration Magnitude

31 Prompting Response Prompts Pictorial/Textual Modeling
Supplementary S to increase likelihood of correct responses Response Prompts Pictorial/Textual Verbal (full or partial) Modeling Physical guidance (Full or Partial)

32 Prompting Stimulus Prompts Movement cues/ Gestrual Position cues
Redundancy cues color size shape Provide response and stimulus prompts before or during the performance of a behavior. Response prompts operate directly on the response. Stimulus prompts operate directly on the antecedent task stimuli to cue a correct response in conjunction with the critical Sd.

33 Examples Pictorial/ Textual Verbal Gestural Modeling Physical Guidance
..\My Pictures\ \ mpg

34 Prompt Fading : Gradual Removal of prompts Most to Least Least to Most
Decreasing Assistance Graduated Guidance: fade physical prompts Time Delay Increasing Assistance

35 Behavior Chain : a particular sequence of responses within a complex skill in which completion of a response serves as a conditioned reinforcer as well as a discriminative stimulus for the next response in the chain. S1 S2 S3 S4 R1 R2 R3 R4 SR

36 Task Analysis Example: TA for brushing teeth
: breaking down a complex task into simple and smaller units Example: TA for brushing teeth

37 Brushing Teeth hygiene\ mpg

38 Teaching Behavior Chains
Total-Task Chaining/ Total-Task Presentation Forward Chaining Backward Chaining: Backward Chaining with Leap Ahead

39 Developing Objectives
Objectives include… Conditions: antecedents (given directions or situation) Student Behavior: observable, measurable /quantifiable Criterion: accuracy, frequency, duration, latency Let’s Develop Objectives for …. Prompts, reinforcers, schedule of reinforcement,

40 Let’s Begin Our Journey

Download ppt "PAAL Training ABA 101 Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed.,BCBA."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google