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WARM UP 10/18 1. Describe the difference between the Deciduous Forest and the Coniferous Forest Biomes. 2. How are the TUNDRA and DESERT similar?

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Presentation on theme: "WARM UP 10/18 1. Describe the difference between the Deciduous Forest and the Coniferous Forest Biomes. 2. How are the TUNDRA and DESERT similar?"— Presentation transcript:

1 WARM UP 10/18 1. Describe the difference between the Deciduous Forest and the Coniferous Forest Biomes. 2. How are the TUNDRA and DESERT similar? How are they different?

2 TODAY’S AGENDA… 1. Put ANSWERS INTO I-RESPOND…. (I will call you up to do so.) Not everyone can use an i-respond at once. 2. While we are waiting, you should be working on the AQUATIC BIOMES WORKSHEET if needed. It needs to be handed in when you are finished. 3. BIOME PASSPORT FILL IN– We will work as a class to fill in any gaps in your passport books.

3 BIOME PASSPORT Please take careful notes!!
You will use the Biome books for your upcoming Biome project! AND for the BIOME EXAM on 10/23 & 10/24 IF YOU RUN OUT OF SPACE, PUT THE INFORMATION IN YOUR IAN!

4 You need to be QUIETLY and independently working
BIOME NAMES…. FIGURE OUT WHAT YOU ARE MISSING… Deciduous Forest Coniferous Forest (Tiaga) Tropical Rainforest Savanna (Tropical Grassland) Desert Tundra Marine Freshwater You need to be QUIETLY and independently working

5 DECIDUOUS FOREST (Temperate Forest)
Temperature: Summer: 28 Deg. C (82 F) Winter: 6 Deg. C (43 F) Rainfall: cm ( in) Soil: Fertile (Allows many different types of trees to grow) Common Plants(Flora): Trees- oak, beech, maple, elm, willow Flowering herbs

6 Deciduous continued… Plant Adaptations: Leaves fall off the trees in order to conserve water Common Herbivores: Possums, rabbits, squirrels, raccoons, deer Common Carnivores: Bears, snakes, woodpeckers Animal Adaptations: Some animals hibernate in the winter Animals gather food to store to make it through the winter Many grow thicker coats to keep warm in winter and shed in summer

7 Endangered Species of Deciduous Forests…
American Bald Eagle American Black Bear Duckbill Platypus

8 Description of the Biome:
4 Seasons (summer, winter, spring, fall) Found in the eastern half of North America, middle of Europe, Asia, New Zealand and Australia Losing land due to farms and humans building (some areas protected)

9 Coniferous Forest (Taiga or Boreal Forest)
Temperature: Summer:14 Deg C(57 F) Winter: -10 Deg. C (14 F) Rainfall: cm ( in) Soil: thin, nutrient poor, and acidic Common Plants (Flora): Conifer trees (have seeds, pinecones) Pine, Fir, Spruce

10 Coniferous Continued…
Plant Adaptations: Conifer trees have a waxy coating to prevent them from drying out, and protects them from cold winters Trees stay green all year round– called evergreen trees Common Animals: Woodpeckers, hawks, moose, bear, weasel, lynx, fox, deer, chipmunks, bats Animal Adaptations: Hibernation Migration Storage Body and Color Adaptation (thicker coats in winter, different colors)

11 Endangered Species of Coniferous…
Grizzly Bear Great Grey Owl Siberian Tiger

12 Description of the Coniferous Biome…
The Coniferous Forest has cold, long, snowy winters, and warm, humid summers; well- defined seasons, at least four to six frost-free months.

13 Tropical Rainforest Temperature: Daytime: 34 Deg C (93 F) Nighttime: 20 Deg C (68 F) (Doesn’t have distinguished seasons) Rainfall: up to 400cm per year (157.5 in) Soil: Nutrient poor, acidic, topsoil is only 2 inches Where rainforests are located: -Central America -Africa -Indo-Malaysia India -Southeast Asia, - New Guinea and Australia.

14 Tropical Rainforest Continued…
Common animals: Jaguar, many tropical birds, small mammals, Insects make up the largest single group of animals Animal Adaptations:

15 Common Plants (Flora): Highly diverse plant life, has more kinds of trees than any other area in the world, Only covers 6% of the Earth’s surface, but provides 20% of our oxygen. Plant Adaptations: plants shed water off their leaves quickly so the branches don't get weighed down and break To absorb as much sunlight as possible, leaves are very large

16 Endangered Animals in Tropical Rainforests:
Jaguars Orangutans Macaws Sloths

17 Savannas (Tropical Grasslands)
Contain the greatest number of grazing animals on Earth. Location: Found in the tropics…near equator Amount of precipitation supports tall grasses but only occasional trees. The word savanna stems from an Amerind term for plains

18 Tropical Savanna Abiotic Factors
Temperature: Dry Season- 34 Deg C (93 Degrees) Wet Season: 16 Deg. C (61Degrees) ~Rainy and dry season ~ in/yr precipitation ~Fire plays a large role in this ecosystem

19 Tropical Savanna Plant Adaptations
Whistling Thorn Tropical Savanna Plant Adaptations Umbrella Thorn Acacia Grows in Tufts Resistance to Drought Many plants have thorns and sharp leaves to protect against predation. Kangaroos Paws Baobab

20 Tropical Savanna Animal Adaptations
Chacma Baboon Tropical Savanna Animal Adaptations Zebras Reproduce during rainy season— ensures more young survive Adapt for short rainy season—migrate as necessary Limited food leads to vertical feeding

21 Threats to the Tropical Savanna
Invasive species Changes in fire management Elephant Because of their low elevation, some savannas are threatened by minor rises in sea level associated with global climate change Koala

22 Steppe (Temperate Grassland) Dry, cold, grasslands
Location: Found in Russia and the Ukraine Temperature: Summer: 30 Degrees C (86F) Winter: 0 Degrees C (32 F) Rainfall:150 cm(59 inches)

23 Steppe Abiotic Factors
Precipitation: Less than 50 inches per year (50-90 cm) Soil: Deep Dark, fertile upper layers. Nutrient rich. Mountains often play a role in climate characteristics

24 Plant adaptations of the Steppe
* Most abundant are plants called Bunch grasses, fine bladed grasses that grow in clumps to preserve water * Trees such as cottonwoods, oaks and willows grow in river valleys. Tumbleweed Sweet Vernal

25 Adaptations of Steppe Animals
Many migrate, hibernate or burrow during extremes in temperatures and precipitation. Types of animals: gazelles, zebras, jack rabbits, coyotes, badgers, skunks, blackbirds, Mongolian Gerbil Saiga Antelope Gazelle herd

26 (List under description of biome)
Threats to the Steppe (List under description of biome) Overgrazing…nomadic tribes have started to spend more time in one location, Infrastructure development (roads, buildings, etc) Unmanaged hunting and poaching is destroying herds of animals Lynx Corsac fox Milk vetch

27 Desert Ecosystems Location: Depending on type of desert, you will find them in various locations.

28 Desert Abiotic factors
Less than10 in/yr of rain (Less than 25 cm) SOIL: ~Shallow, rocky or gravely ~Little to no topsoil due to high winds. ~Minerals not deep in soil. ysflr/taiga.html Temperature: Summer 38 Deg C (100 F) Winter: 7 Deg C (45 F) While there are many types of deserts, they all share one characteristic: They are the driest places on Earth!

29 Joshua Tree
Barrel Cactus Desert Plant Adaptations: Spines Succulents Thick, waxy cuticle Shallow, broad roots All adapt to having little water Joshua Tree Ocotollio

30 Desert Animal Adaptations:
Bob Cat Desert Animal Adaptations: Get water from food Thick outer coat Burrow during day Large ears Smaller animals = less surface area Armadillo Lizard Javelina

31 Threats to the Desert Residential development
Threats to the Desert Residential development Off road recreational activities destroy habitat for plants and animals. Some plants are removed by collectors, endangering the population. Dry Desert Sonoran Desert

32 Joshua Tree
Barrel Cactus Desert Plant Adaptations: Spines Succulents Thick, waxy cuticle Shallow, broad roots All adapt to having little water Joshua Tree Ocotollio

33 Temperature: Summer:12 D Deg. C(54F)
Tundra Temperature: Summer:12 D Deg. C(54F) Winter: -26 Deg. C (-15F) Location: Found north of the Arctic Circle

34 Tundra Abiotic Factors
Rainfall: Less than 25 inches per year Temp rarely higher than 100C Permafrost layer Short growing season

35 Tundra Plant Adaptations
Reindeer lichen Tundra Plant Adaptations Growing close to the ground Having shallow roots to absorb the limited water resources. Trees grow less than 1 m high! cottongrass

36 Perennials Woody shrubs Heaths Examples of Tundra Plants

37 Tundra Animal Adaptations
snowy owl Arctic fox Small ears Insulation, thick coat Other animals: ~polar bears ~salmon ~caribou ~ falcons Tundra Animal Adaptations Grizzly Bear ~Breed and raise young quickly in the summer, ~migration ~Few predators

38 Threats to the Tundra One of the most fragile biomes on the planet
Tufted Saxifrage Polar Bear Oil drilling is proposed in Alaska and other areas! The tundra is slow to recover from damage.

39 Freshwater Ecosystems
Salinity <0.5 ppt. Lake are the deepest of fresh water systems Lakes are fed by underground aquifer or stream Ponds are fed by rainfall and may be seasonal

40 Ponds Sun can reach bottom Fed by rainfall May be seasonal
Microscopic Animals and Algae Sun can reach bottom Fed by rainfall May be seasonal Algae and plants throughout

41 Lakes and ponds—Abiotic Factors
Littoral zone: nutrient rich area found close to shore Benthic zone: bottom of the lake where no sunlight can reach.

42 Lakes and ponds: Plants and Animals Adaptations
Plants are floating algae and plants along shoreline Animals live in or near water

43 Threats to lakes and ponds
All water systems are being polluted and degraded by human impact

44 Marsh
Uses: Animal/plant homes Carbon “sink” Water recharge areas, removing pollutants Types: Brackish and freshwater

45 Marsh—Plant adaptations
Very shallow with land occasionally exposed Saturated soil Low oxygen in water and soil Emergent plants Heron

46 Swamp/Bogs Location: Found on flat, poorly drained land, often near streams

47 Bogs - sphagnum moss is dominant
Swamps/Bogs Abiotic factors Land soaked because of poor drainage Decay is slow - Soil is acidic Swamps Large trees/shrubs Adapted to muddy soils Bogs - sphagnum moss is dominant

48 Threats to Wetlands Previous backfilling and clearing for farmland or development has been a concern.

49 River: Plant and Animal Adaptations
Will vary based on where in the river they are…at the headwaters, organisms need to hang on!

50 Industry uses water to dispose of waste products
Runoff from homes and other places causes changes in acidity, pollution, etc. Threats to Rivers Dams alter the flow of the water

51 Estuaries
Fresh and salt water meet

52 Plant and Animal Adaptations of Estuaries
Very productive biome because it receives lots of light and nutrients Often used as nursery for young Manatee and goose &

53 Many ports are found on estuaries—pollution
Threats to Estuaries Many ports are found on estuaries—pollution Human population

54 Coral Reefs Close to equator Consistent water temperature
Shallow water Low in Nutrients

55 Animal adaptations of the Coral Reef
Breeding area for many fish

56 Threats to the Coral Reefs
Temperature is important, too hot or too cold and the animals can’t live there to create limestone Human intrusion (scuba diving) is damaging if you touch/step on the reef Pollution is also a concern.

57 Oceans

58 Covers nearly ¾ of the Earth’s surface.
Ocean Abiotic factors Covers nearly ¾ of the Earth’s surface. Open ocean is one of the least productive areas on earth, too little sunlight to support plant growth

59 Ocean Plant adaptations
Plants are micro and macroscopic Have floating plants (kelp shown here)

60 Ocean Animal Adaptations
Zooplankton—sea’s smallest herbivores Hammerhead Deep ocean animals feed on detritus—floating debris in the water column. Lion fish

61 While the oceans are vast, they are becoming more polluted
Threats to the Oceans While the oceans are vast, they are becoming more polluted Overfishing and some fishing methods are destroying fishing grounds.

62 Polar Ecosystems Can be considered marine ecosystems since the base of food chain is phytoplankton

63 Arctic vs. Antarctic Arctic Relatively shallow, lots of nutrients for large variety of animals in food web, People, seals and polar bears found here. Antarctic Penguins live here—only continent not used by humans (exc. Research)

64 Threats to the Polar Ecosystems
Reserves of minerals draw humans to these fragile ecosystems. The main threat to wildlife has been the increase in tourism—garbage left behind


66 MARINE BIOMES… Oceans Photic Zone– Portion of marine biome that is shallow enough to penetrate sunlight (coastlines-shore, beaches, mudflats) Aphotic Zone– Deeper Waters that do not receive sunlight. (Deep, least explored oceans) Phos- Light (Greek) A- Without (Greek)

67 Marine Life Largest amounts of biomass (living materials) though often very small Whales, seals, sea otters, sea cows Kelp, algea, sea grass

68 Estuary Bay, sound, fjord, salt marshes, wetlands
Freshwater mixes with salt water (some land) Brackish Water (more salt than freshwater; but less than marine) Salinity ranges Amount of freshwater vs. Saltwater Tides Biodiversity

69 Estuary Life Eelgrass, smooth cordgrass, sea lavender
Shiner Perch, Starry Flounder Orange Striped Jellyfish, Purple Shore Crab, Scallop Predators– cranes and other birds Decay of dead organisms is quick, nutrients recycled through food web.

70 Freshwater Biomes Major abiotic factors: temperature and light
Not enough sunlight penetrates to bottom to support photosynthesis Few aquatic plants or algea grow Population density lower Bacteria break down dead organisms and recycle nutrients

71 Freshwater Life Concentric bands or clusters of species
Cattails, sedges Tadpoles, aquatic insects, turtles, worms, crayfish, beetles, dragonflies, minnows, bluegill, carp.

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