Presentation on theme: "WARM UP 10/18 1. Describe the difference between the Deciduous Forest and the Coniferous Forest Biomes. 2. How are the TUNDRA and DESERT similar?"— Presentation transcript:
1WARM UP 10/181. Describe the difference between the Deciduous Forest and the Coniferous Forest Biomes.2. How are the TUNDRA and DESERT similar? How are they different?
2TODAY’S AGENDA…1. Put ANSWERS INTO I-RESPOND…. (I will call you up to do so.) Not everyone can use ani-respond at once.2. While we are waiting, you should be working on the AQUATIC BIOMES WORKSHEET if needed. It needs to be handed in when you are finished.3. BIOME PASSPORT FILL IN– We will work as a class to fill in any gaps in your passport books.
3BIOME PASSPORT Please take careful notes!! You will use the Biome books for your upcoming Biome project! AND for the BIOME EXAM on 10/23 & 10/24IF YOU RUN OUT OF SPACE, PUT THE INFORMATION IN YOUR IAN!
4You need to be QUIETLY and independently working BIOME NAMES….FIGURE OUT WHAT YOU ARE MISSING…Deciduous ForestConiferous Forest (Tiaga)Tropical RainforestSavanna (Tropical Grassland)DesertTundraMarineFreshwaterYou need to be QUIETLY andindependently working
5DECIDUOUS FOREST (Temperate Forest) Temperature:Summer: 28 Deg. C (82 F)Winter: 6 Deg. C (43 F)Rainfall: cm ( in)Soil: Fertile (Allows many different types of trees to grow)Common Plants(Flora): Trees- oak, beech, maple, elm, willowFlowering herbs
6Deciduous continued…Plant Adaptations: Leaves fall off the trees in order to conserve waterCommon Herbivores:Possums, rabbits, squirrels, raccoons, deerCommon Carnivores:Bears, snakes, woodpeckersAnimal Adaptations:Some animals hibernate in the winterAnimals gather food to store to make it through the winterMany grow thicker coats to keep warm in winter and shed in summer
7Endangered Species of Deciduous Forests… American Bald EagleAmerican Black BearDuckbill Platypus
8Description of the Biome: 4 Seasons (summer, winter, spring, fall)Found in the eastern half of North America, middle of Europe, Asia, New Zealand and AustraliaLosing land due to farms and humans building (some areas protected)
9Coniferous Forest (Taiga or Boreal Forest) Temperature: Summer:14 Deg C(57 F)Winter: -10 Deg. C (14 F)Rainfall: cm ( in)Soil: thin, nutrient poor, and acidicCommon Plants (Flora): Conifer trees (have seeds, pinecones) Pine, Fir, Spruce
10Coniferous Continued… Plant Adaptations:Conifer trees have a waxy coating to prevent them from drying out, and protects them from cold wintersTrees stay green all year round– called evergreen treesCommon Animals:Woodpeckers, hawks, moose, bear, weasel, lynx, fox, deer, chipmunks, batsAnimal Adaptations:HibernationMigrationStorageBody and Color Adaptation (thicker coats in winter, different colors)
11Endangered Species of Coniferous… Grizzly BearGreat Grey OwlSiberian Tiger
12Description of the Coniferous Biome… The Coniferous Forest has cold, long, snowy winters, and warm, humid summers; well- defined seasons, at least four to six frost-free months.
13Tropical RainforestTemperature: Daytime: 34 Deg C (93 F) Nighttime: 20 Deg C (68 F) (Doesn’t have distinguished seasons)Rainfall: up to 400cm per year (157.5 in)Soil: Nutrient poor, acidic, topsoil is only 2 inchesWhere rainforests are located:-Central America-Africa-Indo-Malaysia India-Southeast Asia,- New Guinea and Australia.
14Tropical Rainforest Continued… Common animals:Jaguar, many tropical birds, small mammals, Insects make up the largest single group of animalsAnimal Adaptations:
15Common Plants (Flora): Highly diverse plant life, has more kinds of trees than any other area in the world, Only covers 6% of the Earth’s surface, but provides 20% of our oxygen.Plant Adaptations:plants shed water off their leaves quickly so the branches don't get weighed down and breakTo absorb as much sunlight as possible, leaves are very large
16Endangered Animals in Tropical Rainforests: JaguarsOrangutansMacawsSloths
17Savannas (Tropical Grasslands) Contain the greatest number of grazing animals on Earth.Location: Found in the tropics…near equatorAmount of precipitation supports tall grasses but only occasional trees.The word savanna stems from an Amerind term for plains
18Tropical Savanna Abiotic Factors Temperature: Dry Season- 34 Deg C (93 Degrees)Wet Season: 16 Deg. C (61Degrees)~Rainy and dry season~ in/yr precipitation~Fire plays a large role in this ecosystem
19Tropical Savanna Plant Adaptations Whistling ThornTropical Savanna Plant AdaptationsUmbrella Thorn AcaciaGrows in TuftsResistance to DroughtMany plants have thorns and sharp leaves to protect against predation.Kangaroos PawsBaobab
20Tropical Savanna Animal Adaptations Chacma BaboonTropical Savanna Animal AdaptationsZebrasReproduce during rainy season— ensures more young surviveAdapt for short rainy season—migrate as necessary Limited food leads to vertical feeding
21Threats to the Tropical Savanna Invasive speciesChanges in fire managementElephantBecause of their low elevation, some savannas are threatened by minor rises in sea level associated with global climate changeKoala
22Steppe (Temperate Grassland) Dry, cold, grasslands Location: Found in Russia and the UkraineTemperature: Summer: 30 Degrees C (86F)Winter: 0 Degrees C (32 F)Rainfall:150 cm(59 inches)
23Steppe Abiotic Factors Precipitation: Less than 50 inches per year (50-90 cm)Soil: Deep Dark, fertile upper layers. Nutrient rich.Mountains often play a role in climate characteristics
24Plant adaptations of the Steppe * Most abundant are plants called Bunch grasses, fine bladed grasses that grow in clumps to preserve water * Trees such as cottonwoods, oaks and willows grow in river valleys.TumbleweedSweet Vernal
25Adaptations of Steppe Animals Many migrate, hibernate or burrow during extremes in temperatures and precipitation. Types of animals: gazelles, zebras, jack rabbits, coyotes, badgers, skunks, blackbirds,Mongolian GerbilSaiga AntelopeGazelle herd
26(List under description of biome) Threats to the Steppe(List under description of biome)Overgrazing…nomadic tribes have started to spend more time in one location,Infrastructure development (roads, buildings, etc)Unmanaged hunting and poaching is destroying herds of animalsLynxCorsac foxMilk vetch
27Desert EcosystemsLocation: Depending on type of desert, you will find them in various locations.
28Desert Abiotic factors Less than10 in/yr of rain (Less than 25 cm)SOIL:~Shallow, rocky or gravely~Little to no topsoil due to high winds.~Minerals not deep in soil.ysflr/taiga.htmlTemperature:Summer 38 Deg C (100 F)Winter: 7 Deg C (45 F)While there are many types of deserts, they all share one characteristic: They are the driest places on Earth!
29Joshua Tree http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/desert_plant_page.htm Barrel CactusDesert Plant Adaptations:SpinesSucculentsThick, waxy cuticleShallow, broad rootsAll adapt to having little waterJoshua TreeOcotollio
30Desert Animal Adaptations: Bob CatDesert Animal Adaptations:Get water from foodThick outer coatBurrow during dayLarge earsSmaller animals =less surface areaArmadillo LizardJavelina
31Threats to the Desert Residential development Threats to the DesertResidential developmentOff road recreational activities destroy habitat for plants and animals.Some plants are removed by collectors, endangering the population.Dry DesertSonoran Desert
32Joshua Tree http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/desert_plant_page.htm Barrel CactusDesert Plant Adaptations:SpinesSucculentsThick, waxy cuticleShallow, broad rootsAll adapt to having little waterJoshua TreeOcotollio
33Temperature: Summer:12 D Deg. C(54F) TundraTemperature: Summer:12 D Deg. C(54F)Winter: -26 Deg. C (-15F)Location: Found north of the Arctic Circle
34Tundra Abiotic Factors Rainfall: Less than 25 inches per yearTemp rarely higher than 100CPermafrost layerShort growing season
35Tundra Plant Adaptations Reindeer lichenTundra Plant AdaptationsGrowing close to the groundHaving shallow roots to absorb the limited water resources.Trees grow less than 1 m high!cottongrass
36Perennials Woody shrubs Heaths Examples of Tundra Plants .html
37Tundra Animal Adaptations snowy owlArctic foxSmall ears Insulation, thick coatOther animals:~polar bears~salmon~caribou~ falconsTundra Animal AdaptationsGrizzly Bear~Breed and raise young quickly in the summer, ~migration ~Few predators
38Threats to the Tundra One of the most fragile biomes on the planet Tufted SaxifragePolar BearOil drilling is proposed in Alaska and other areas!The tundra is slow to recover from damage.
39Freshwater Ecosystems Salinity <0.5 ppt.Lake are the deepest of fresh water systemsLakes are fed by underground aquifer or streamPonds are fed by rainfall and may be seasonal
40Ponds Sun can reach bottom Fed by rainfall May be seasonal Microscopic Animals and AlgaeSun can reach bottomFed by rainfallMay be seasonalAlgae and plants throughout
41Lakes and ponds—Abiotic Factors Littoral zone: nutrient rich area found close to shoreBenthic zone: bottom of the lake where no sunlight can reach.
42Lakes and ponds: Plants and Animals Adaptations Plants are floating algae and plants along shorelineAnimals live in or near water
43Threats to lakes and ponds All water systems are being polluted and degraded by human impact
45Marsh—Plant adaptations Very shallow with land occasionally exposedSaturated soilLow oxygen in water and soilEmergent plantsHeron
46Swamp/BogsLocation: Found on flat, poorly drained land, often near streams
47Bogs - sphagnum moss is dominant Swamps/Bogs Abiotic factors Land soaked because of poor drainage Decay is slow - Soil is acidic Swamps Large trees/shrubs Adapted to muddy soilsBogs - sphagnum moss is dominant
48Threats to WetlandsPrevious backfilling and clearing for farmland or development has been a concern.
49River: Plant and Animal Adaptations Will vary based on where in the river they are…at the headwaters, organisms need to hang on!
50Industry uses water to dispose of waste products Runoff from homes and other places causes changes in acidity, pollution, etc.Threats to RiversDams alter the flow of the water
51Estuaries http://mbgnet.mobot.org/salt/sandy/ Fresh and salt water meet
52Plant and Animal Adaptations of Estuaries Very productive biome because it receives lots of light and nutrientsOften used as nursery for youngManatee and goose&
53Many ports are found on estuaries—pollution Threats to EstuariesMany ports are found on estuaries—pollutionHuman populationpers-erf.org
54Coral Reefs Close to equator Consistent water temperature Shallow waterLow in Nutrients
55Animal adaptations of the Coral Reef Breeding area for many fish
56Threats to the Coral Reefs Temperature is important, too hot or too cold and the animals can’t live there to create limestoneHuman intrusion (scuba diving) is damaging if you touch/step on the reefPollution is also a concern.
58Covers nearly ¾ of the Earth’s surface. Ocean Abiotic factorsCovers nearly ¾ of the Earth’s surface.Open ocean is one of the least productive areas on earth, too little sunlight to support plant growth
59Ocean Plant adaptations Plants are micro and macroscopic Have floating plants (kelp shown here)
60Ocean Animal Adaptations Zooplankton—sea’s smallest herbivoresHammerheadDeep ocean animals feed on detritus—floating debris in the water column.Lion fish
61While the oceans are vast, they are becoming more polluted Threats to the OceansWhile the oceans are vast, they are becoming more pollutedOverfishing and some fishing methods are destroying fishing grounds.
62Polar EcosystemsCan be considered marine ecosystems since the base of food chain is phytoplankton
63Arctic vs. AntarcticArctic Relatively shallow, lots of nutrients for large variety of animals in food web, People, seals and polar bears found here.Antarctic Penguins live here—only continent not used by humans (exc. Research)nmml.afsc.noaa.gov
64Threats to the Polar Ecosystems Reserves of minerals draw humans to these fragile ecosystems.The main threat to wildlife has been the increase in tourism—garbage left behindnewt.phys.unsw.edu.au
66MARINE BIOMES…OceansPhotic Zone– Portion of marine biome that is shallow enough to penetrate sunlight(coastlines-shore, beaches, mudflats)Aphotic Zone– Deeper Waters that do not receive sunlight. (Deep, least explored oceans)Phos- Light (Greek)A- Without (Greek)
67Marine LifeLargest amounts of biomass (living materials) though often very smallWhales, seals, sea otters, sea cowsKelp, algea, sea grass
68Estuary Bay, sound, fjord, salt marshes, wetlands Freshwater mixes with salt water (some land)Brackish Water (more salt than freshwater; but less than marine)Salinity rangesAmount of freshwater vs. SaltwaterTidesBiodiversity
69Estuary Life Eelgrass, smooth cordgrass, sea lavender Shiner Perch, Starry Flounder Orange Striped Jellyfish, Purple Shore Crab, ScallopPredators– cranes and other birdsDecay of dead organisms is quick, nutrients recycled through food web.
70Freshwater Biomes Major abiotic factors: temperature and light Not enough sunlight penetrates to bottom to support photosynthesisFew aquatic plants or algea growPopulation density lowerBacteria break down dead organisms and recycle nutrients
71Freshwater Life Concentric bands or clusters of species Cattails, sedgesTadpoles, aquatic insects, turtles, worms, crayfish, beetles, dragonflies, minnows, bluegill, carp.